About three quarters of the way to what I was looking for. Does what it says on the cover - responsive web design, using HTML5 and CSS3. After an opening chapter on the mindset of responsive design and some suggested testing tools, it then goes on to convert and add features to a basic site using responsive design ideas. The chapter headings break it down fairly clearly and for the purposes of redesigning a site on modern principles, it covers a lot.
The area perhaps lacking is in the semantic use of HTML5 - the coverage of various HTML5 structural elements is a bit light and you're designing, or redesigning a site, you may need some other resource for this.