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TOP 500 REVIEWERon 5 July 2014
Subtitled ‘the struggle for the soul of physics’, Philip Ball’s book takes us deep into the conflicted (and conflicting) stories of how German physicists responded to the growing power of the Nazis, their attitude to Jews, and their responses to the strictures of the Second World War.

In principle Ball does this by examining the lives and work of three physicists – the old guard Max Planck, a Dutch immigrant Peter Debye, and the seemingly amoral Werner Heisenberg – but in practice we see the impact of the regime and culture on many other physicists from intense supporters of the Nazis to those who did their best to oppose the regime.

Over the years these German scientists have been portrayed as everything from enthusiastic supporters of the Third Reich to secret saboteurs who did all they could to slow down the German development of nuclear weapons. Ball resolutely refuses to paint them either black or white, instead giving us every possible detail of shades of grey.

This is, without doubt, the fairest and most honest approach, given the lack of concrete information, but sometimes Ball’s concern to remain neutral and portray history as it was, rather than the usual ‘as the historian wants it to be’ can make the book a bit of a hard slog. Reading a Philip Ball book is a bit like attending a lecture by a scientist who absolutely knows his stuff, and is prepared to go off on lots of interesting side diversions, but nonetheless is very pernickety and precise, insisting on weighing everything up from every possible angle, so that just sometimes not only is the moral position of the scientists entirely grey, so is the storytelling.

This is a fascinating period in the history of physics, and it is indeed interesting to see how these well known (and less well known) characters played their part. Often the answer is ‘in a human, if rather detached, way – wanting as much as possible to get on with life, even if it meant ignoring some difficult truths.’ There is a feeling that somehow scientists should be more able to face reality – but in fact, in many ways they can be even more withdrawn than a typical citizen. Either way, with such ambiguous circumstances, combined with attempts after the war to modify the record to make things look less unpleasant, the result is inevitably a messy history that can never definitively tell us what happened. So don’t expect to come out of this with a clear picture – but do expect to know a lot more about the thinking of these key figures outside of their work in physics.
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VINE VOICETOP 1000 REVIEWERon 31 December 2013
The role of scientists in Hitler's Germany has been the subject of several books. This one is concerned with just physicists and concentrates on three senior figures: Peter Debye, Max Planck and Werner Heisenberg. None were Nazis in the sense of being active party members, but all three have been strongly criticised for compromising with the regime, in the full knowledge of its true nature. This is examined in great detail by the author, using extensive archival research, and he concludes with a judgment that is not as harsh as that of some previous authors.

Planck was older than the others and found it impossible to break out of the traditional Germanic beliefs of honour and obedience to the authority of the state. He was a tragic figure in many ways and was a broken man at the end of the war. Heisenberg was a very different figure. A supremely arrogant serial dissembler, he was far more willing to comply with the demands of the Nazi rulers for his own advancement, and after the war attempted to justify his actions, often in contradictory ways. But even his supporters were dismayed by the eventual publication of the transcripts of the secret tapes made at Hall Farm, where Heisenberg and others Germany scientists were briefly interned after the war, and letters written to Heisenberg by Bohr (but not sent) after the former's controversial and inflammatory visit to Copenhagen during the war. Both often contradict Heisenberg's own justification for his wartime actions.

Of the three, it is the story of Debye that I found most interesting, because it was new to me and has not been examined in such detail before. For example, in Cornwall's 2003 book `Hitler's Scientists', Debye gets only a passing mention on just three pages. Part of the reason is because Debye was not a nuclear physicist and so played no role in the failed attempt to produce a nuclear weapon, which had been led by Heisenberg. He did not remain in Germany during the war, but in 1940 left for America after refusing to renounce his Dutch citizenship. Although initially under suspicion there, he was soon accepted and spent the rest of his career in the Chemistry Department at Cornell University, latterly as its Head, continuing his research and receiving awards and other recognitions.

However, things changed in 2006 with the publication of a book fiercely critical of Debye's role before he left Germany and even implying that the move to America may have been to continue to work for the Nazi regime. Ball dismisses this attack, and a subsequent official Dutch report set up to re-consider Debye's case, as biased. Certainly, the worse possible interpretation was put on Debye's behaviour in these publications. For example, there is evidence that Debye made some anti-Semitic remarks, but this is to ignore the casual ant-Semitism prevalent at the time. Lord Cherwell, Churchill's wartime science advisor, also had known anti-Semitic leaning, but that did not stop him going out of his way to help find jobs in England for refugee Jewish scientist, and Debye himself helped some Jewish scientists to leave Germany, including Lise Meitner. Nevertheless, he did not help his case when he kept his Directorship of a most prestigious institute in Germany (and still drawing his salary) so giving the impression that his allegiance remained with that country. But Ball does not exonerate Debye. He believes that all three must be condemned for their moral blindness, their incapacity to recognise their responsibilities, and afterwards, never to have admitted that they had done anything wrong.

The book ends with a short section about what we should be learnt from these examples about the future role of scientists in general in society. The principle one is that scientists should cease to believe that their work is apolitical, and there are signs that this is happening with scientists becoming more engaged with politicians and the public over question such as climate change, bioethics and nanotechnology. Only time will tell whether this results in more effective resistance by scientists should another occasion arise when science is used for unethical purposes.

All the above is very positive, but I also have some criticisms. Ball's writing is very clear, and his arguments usually well made, but sometimes a little irritating. He carefully builds up the case against someone on a particular point, only to demolish it in the next paragraph. After doing this several times it becomes repetitive. There are other places where basically the same points are repeated, or questions posed. For example variations of the question `How can anyone make judgments about the actions of others if they were not faced with the same dilemmas?' appears several times. There are also some extended explanations of nuclear physics that are not really essential to the main story. Two final criticisms, both minor: there are only a few, rather uninteresting, illustrations; and the arrangement of the Notes and Index entries make it difficult to relate them to the text, or use them efficiently.

Despite these criticisms, this is a fine book that gave this reader much new information about Debye, and as a physicist myself, forced me to reconsider some of my views about the culpability of German scientists in the Nazi era.
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TOP 500 REVIEWERon 23 November 2013
Serving the Reich

At the end of the Second World War the allies were chasing down scientists as quickly as possible in a game of cat and mouse not just across Germany but especially around Berlin. The biggest race was that between the USA and Russia and they were looking for physicists specifically so they could put them to use for their own specific purposes using developments that had come about under Nazi Germany. We just have to look at the nuclear physicist and rocket specialist that in some cases were literally smuggled out of Germany to various research facilities the allies had. This book is an interesting explanation as to the development of the importance of science and specifically physics under Nazi patronage and how those scientists used this to their advantage while ignoring the consequences of their actions.

This area of historical research has been written about well and often by many others the difference with this book by Phillip Ball is that it is far more comprehensive and well written making it a pleasure to read. What I like about Ball's research and writing is that he does his best to be even handed, while not afraid to point the finger when necessary.

While Ball discuss' the physics community at large he also focuses especially on three Noble laureates in Max Planck, Werner Heisenberg and the Dutchman Peter Debye. A lot of the new material in this book comes from the archives of Peter Debye who moved to America in 1940 which makes fascinating reading. I can highly recommend this book as an important addition to the debate on the Sciences during the Nazi Period.
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on 17 October 2016
Philip Ball does an excellent job of showing how the leading physicists who didn't flee Nazi Germany accommodated themselves to the regime. It seems fairly clear that despite justifications afterwards, the likes of Heisenberg got on with their jobs and looked after their own interests. There is no evidence that research into the development of an atomic bomb was deliberately slowed down or sabotaged (and some indication that Heisenberg got his sums wrong).
Of course, this is not a phenomenon unique to Germany. The physicists were members of a middle class that shared the prejudices of their time, including a general anti-semitism and were firm believers in law and order and obedience to authority. Given that we are now in danger of entering another period where demagogues exploit prejudice and fear for their own ends, the lessons of this book are timely. .
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Arrived as described
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on 6 September 2016
This book is excellent when it reports the facts of the case, as it does in great detail. I am far less happy with it when the author attempts to ascribe motives and makes moral judgments. Many of his arguments are plausible, but how can anyone at this distance be sure of the motivations of others? Are they to be judged on the information which they had at the time, or with the hindsight of history?
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on 30 November 2014
I found it slow to start but once in to it enjoyed it reminding myself of A level physics. The final few chapters were quite tedious and somewhat repetitive.
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on 18 February 2015
Interesting with a good analysis of the political and social conditions during the third Reich in Germany and their influence in science and research.
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on 28 August 2016
Excellent read, good service
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