on 13 May 2016
A phobia is an unreasonable, irrational fear. Islam has a religious obligation to control and destroy all other faiths and laws, which may make non-Muslims have a very real reason for feeling less than relaxed.
Allah's holy Law of War is in fact the most important religious duty in Islam, obligatory for all Muslims. This is absolutely clear in the Qur'an, the Hadith-traditional stories, the very first valid histories by Ibn Ishaq and Tabari, and Islamic law. Islam must reign supreme over all other religions and laws. Jihad is the pinnacle of Islam.
Qur’an 9:29 Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.
The phrase la ilaha illa allah in the Qur’an: in Mecca 37:35, 38:4-10 and Medina 47:19.
In these it means religious war for supremacy against all disbelievers.
Qur’an 47:19 Muhammad So know that La ilaha illallah, there is no god except Allah.
Maududi says: This was at the time of the battle of Badr. It is also entitled al-Qital, the Fighting, because it gives the firm command for Jihad, and its theme is to prepare the Muslims for war against disbelievers and to give them instructions about those who kill and those who are killed:
Qur’an 9: 111 Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties for (the price) that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah's cause, so they kill and are killed.
on 18 September 2012
Deepa Kumar is vividly aware of the impact of Islamophobia on Muslims within the United Sates. She traces the recent growth of anti-Muslim feeling in America, however, to the history of American and European imperialism over many centuries, and to the desire by the Bush administration to justify the revengeful attacks on Afghanistan and Iraq after 9/11, and to justify American support for the state of Israel, particularly the Likud leadership, against Palestinians. She notes, correctly and importantly, that it is frequently the case in human affairs that `an external enemy is ... paired with an internal one against whom palpable fear and hatred are generated. It follows that Islamophobia is about politics and not religion; it is therefore in the realm of politics that Islamophobia must be fought.' She notes too the existence of what she calls `liberal Islamophobia' and in this connection laments that the Democratic Party in the US, as also the political left more generally in western countries, has not yet adequately understood that Islamophobia is a political metter, not a religious one.
Kumar writes well and clearly, and with a wealth of references and anecdotes, some of them personal. Her arguments would have been more cogent, or even more cogent, if she had included much more consideration of Islamophobia in contemporary Europe, where those on the receiving end are economically more disadvantaged and oppressed than Muslims in America, and if the insights and concerns of Muslim scholars and commentators, both in Europe and America, had been given a fuller hearing. It would also have been relevant to examine the role of the media, and in this regard the concept of moral panic, and to give more attention to the anxieties about personal and national identity which arise from globalisation.
But all in all, this is a useful addition to the growing literature on the nature, causes and consequences of Islamophobia in western countries.