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on 26 January 2014
In 1991, Ronald Hutton published 'The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles,' at the time a unique, one-volume survey of its subject that quickly, and rightly, attained classic status, being quoted in almost every subsequent work on British prehistory. This new book is designed to supersede it, reassessing its contents and conclusions, expanding on it and adding a huge amount of new information that has come to light over the last two decades.
First impressions are of an attractive, well-produced book, containing many more illustrations than its predecessor, though still in monochrome. The illustrations are well-chosen, including many of the usual suspects - the 'Sorcerer of Trois Frères,' the 'Venus of Willendorf,' and so on - but going well beyond them. For example, a group headed 'Less familiar Palaeolithic images' includes human figurines that were found alongside the much better known 'Venuses' on which whole theories of prehistoric belief have been built. These images and their accompanying text provide one example of a process Hutton follows throughout the book, returning to original excavation reports and re-examining, often at first-hand, the objects described so as to place them in their proper context. He has visited or re-visited many sites where objects were found, often in company with archaeological specialists. This meticulous research is filtered through the author's broad areas of personal interest, including ancient and modern paganisms and shamanism. These interests, however, are never allowed to overwhelm the evidence.
As well as exploring prehistoric sites and the artefacts found at them, Professor Hutton examines ways in which attitudes to the past alter in tandem with more recent changes, so the Victorian era of conquest, colonisation and conversion by the British produced the idea that Britain itself was repeatedly conquered, colonised and converted throughout prehistory. The 20th century dismantling of the British Empire and our joining of the European Economic Union then produced a new vision of prehistory that replaced conquest with trade as the primary means by which the British Isles interacted with the rest of Europe. Pagan Britain offers many such insights into both our remote and more immediate ancestors.
One of my own areas of interest is in what archaeologists call burnt mounds, piles of stones that have been subjected to very high temperatures before being either doused with water or immersed in it. Many theories have been put forward to explain them, including Native American style sweat lodges, Swedish style saunas, cooking sites for joints of meat or breweries for prehistoric beer. Thanks to this book, I now know that a major survey of such sites in Ireland, published in 2011, has shown all four explanations are sustainable for some of the sites. For a modern Druid such as myself who has experienced the power of ritualised sweat lodges and is also partial to the occasional pint of ale, this is welcome news indeed!
One section of the book looks at interactions between professional archaeologists and interested non-professionals, including what might loosely be called the 'Earth Mysteries' community. These are often hostile and have been for a very long time. The story of how archaeology stopped being a hobby and became a profession, and how those who adopted it as such subsequently came to exercise such unquestioned access to, and control over, our shared heritage would make a fascinating sociological study in the development of elite dominance. Another admirable feature of 'Pagan Britain' is the extent to which it continually reveals topics such as this and shows them to be worthy of extended treatment. Hopefully a generation of researchers will be inspired to follow up on them. If so, they, like the rest of us, will owe a debt of gratitude to Professor Hutton for the diligence of his research, the breadth of his vision and his ability to bring so much information and so many ideas together.
Hutton writes both for academic colleagues and general readers, achieving this rare double by the simple means of using clear, precise, jargon-free English. If more of his colleagues adopted this habit, they would render their work accessible to a much broader readership. Another aspect of Hutton's writing that appeals greatly is his inclusion of illuminating, entertaining, often bizarre incidental details such as the fact that the early 19th century scholar, William Buckland, was often accompanied at academic functions by his pet bear, which he dressed in a student's cap and gown. Such quirky and engaging human touches certainly help bring history to life.
As with Professor Hutton's previous works on Paganisms ancient and modern, this book will no doubt divide the modern Pagan community, perhaps most strongly in its final chapter, 'The Legacy of British Paganism.' It is here, looking at changing academic and public attitudes towards possible survivals of paganism from ancient times, through the Middle Ages and up to the present day, that the author most maintains his reputation as an iconoclast. Those who dismiss this section as simple iconoclasm, however, can only do so by ignoring qualifying statements as in the following example: "The former tendency to assume that virtually all traditional British seasonal rites were survivors of paganism was clearly misplaced, but blanket dismissal of pagan ingredients in them would be even more erroneous. Broad themes of seasonal festivity often have more staying power than individual customs, though even some of those can be proved to have survived for millennia."
A word of warning: if you are looking for the sort of certainty found in other books, such as the many claiming to have 'solved the mystery of Stonehenge' once and for all, you should definitely look elsewhere. Hutton is careful not to argue beyond what demonstrable facts allow. Where, as is often the case, the evidence is open to a variety of interpretations, he is equally careful to present all alternatives fairly, where possible evaluating which are the most likely, but willing to admit when none are proven or where such proof may not even be possible. Some may find the frequency with which a 'not proven' verdict is returned frustrating, but, as the author makes clear, there are times when our current state of knowledge simply leaves no definitive conclusion possible.
Is 'Pagan Britain'', then, a worthy successor to Pagan Religions...'? My answer is a resounding yes. Like its illustrious predecessor, it offers a one-stop shop for all who, like me, have an abiding interest in prehistoric British religion, a desire to keep up with the latest information on the subject, but little access to academic journals, field reports or specialist publications. Professor Hutton draws together the whole gamut of recent research along with the speculations and conclusions stemming from it, bringing it all together for us. And for those who want to look further into areas of particular interest, there are extensive endnotes.
As mentioned earlier, what makes 'Pagan Britain' so compelling is Professor Hutton's unusual breadth of personal interests and depth of knowledge in them, spanning paganisms old and new, shamanism, anthropology and archaeology, as well as British, European and world history. This is enhanced by his almost unrivalled list of contacts with colleagues across this wide range of disciplines, his enthusiasm and seemingly boundless energy for detailed and thorough research, and his remarkable ability to marshal and make sense of a huge quantity and range of information and present it with such clarity. In short, the book is a tour de force and, like 'Pagan Religions...', is essential reading for anyone with an interest in its subject.
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on 19 October 2014
This is a comprehensive review of pagan beliefs in Britain from the beginning of the agricultural period through to recent centuries.The author points out that the interpretation of the evidence about these belief systems has fluctuated in line with changes in social attitudes over the last hundred and fifty years. He shows that there is no clear evidence for what these beliefs actually were in the whole of the pre-Roman period. He is dismissive of the idea of a belief in a great goddess during this period. He also indicates that the nature of the immediately pre-Roman Druidism is also very uncertain.

For the Roman period, there is a useful discussion of the degree of merger between local religions and imported Roman cults. An interesting feature is the return to apparently religious activity in some of the hill forts in the late Roman period. However, the author establishes that paganism had died out in the Romano-British areas at least by the sixth century. Similarly, Saxon paganism and later Viking paganism saw rapid extinctions. With respect to later centuries, the author discusses the persecution of witches, but dismisses the idea that they were evidence of an underground pagan survival.

As in most descriptions of early religion, both academic and popular, there is a tendency to pass over shamanistic or mystical elements. The possibility of a shamanistic element in the pre-Roman religions is touched on, but not discussed in any depth. Similarly, the mystery religions, which were certainly present in Britain, and had a big role in Roman religion in the immediately pre-Christain centuries, get a rather limited coverage.
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on 15 March 2015
Having a background in science but only a cursory understanding of what life was like before the Romans arrived I bought this book out of general interest and a desire to know rather more than I did about the early inhabitants of these islands. I assumed that we had a pretty good understanding of who these peoples were and what they believed. I had an image of Stonehenge as being a giant calendar and of Druids in long white robes and beards cavorting about amongst it standing stones. As it turns out I couldn't have been more wrong. It would seem that basically we haven't a clue why many of our iconic megaliths were built and the beliefs of the people who built them. About the only thing we can be certain of is that they must have had a pretty good reason for doing so as the work and organisation needed must have been phenomenal. Not the sort of thing a few mates do for a laugh after a few too many tankards of mead!! Our image of the Druids is also more based on a Victorian romantic image than on fact. In fact "facts" are what it would seem we are very short of. These people left no written record, any hard evidence is often open to multiple interpretations and the conquering Christians did a very good hatchet job of erasing and demonising any beliefs that didn't match their own. In fact looking at the recent news it would seem that nothing much has changed. This is a brilliant book and Prof Hutton has presented an even handed summary of what we know for certain (very little) and what is wish-full thinking (rather a lot). This is what makes science interesting. I am tempted to look at some of his other works to find out a bit more of what we don't actually know.
Ronald Hutton
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on 19 September 2014
This is one of those books where you learn something new on every second page, and the pages in between those each give you pause for thought. The main thing you learn is that many of the commonly held assumptions about this topic are simply wrong, and that much assumed ancient pagan practice or evidence has in fact a much younger pedigree. Still I do like the way that while he politely and painstakingly unpicks the supposed deep history of many of these things that he still leaves space for them to still be an important or comforting symbol for some people despite losing their claimed deep history.
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on 26 February 2014
Educational and entertaining history of prehistoric Britain and Europe from a prospective I had not been exposed to before. Makes me want to visit some of the sites discussed and consider them from a better-informed perspective.
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on 20 January 2014
I must admit I purchased the book because the author, Professor Ronald Hutton was a keynote speaker at a Celtic Conference that my University held before Christmas. But delving further into the book I have found it to be a great read full to the brim with interesting details about Pagan Britain. Also it happens to be useful for dissertation next year with a chapter about Pagan deities and Roman Britain.

I would highly recommend it for fans of his work and those who find the subject fascinating, a very good book.
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on 20 March 2016
Fast delivery thanks. Print inside v small so be warned!!
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on 10 November 2016
Great read, but the small print does make reading tiresome if you have eyesight issues.
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on 17 May 2016
Nothing airy fairy here. Lovingly researched and painlessly presesnted
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on 24 May 2015
Excellent service - the wonderful Ronald Hutton at his literate best.
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