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The Little Book of Crap Excuses
The Little Book of Crap Excuses
by Michael Powell
Edition: Paperback

2 of 2 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars The Little Bookof Crap Excuses: Michael Powell, 8 Feb. 2013
There are many humorous books in 'The Little Book of...' series. Their content covers diverse subjects and in this book is found a collection of 'excuses' that are funny because they appear to fly in the face of logic, and are motivated by the pure egotistical considerations. These type of excuse does not even try to appear plausible and is often a product of a rushed response to over-whelming, difficult, or surprising circumstance. As a consequence hese excuses are termed 'crap'.

The paperback (2001) edition is pocket sized and contains 93 numbered pages. The excuses vary in length, but each page usually contains more than one excuse. There is no Contents page and no Index, but haphazardly spread throughout the book are expedient headings such as:

A Note From Your Mother...
Eat Then Cheat
Save Pounds
Doctor, Doctor
Kinky
It Just Came Out of Nowhere...
You've Never Had It So Good
I'd Love To But...
Biblical Excuses for Dialling 999
Is That The Time?
We Was Robbed, etc.

The backcover contains something of an Introduction written by the author - Michael Powell. This explains that we all make mistakes but often lack the skill to react coherently. Incoherent responses become 'crap excuses' For instance, the backcover quotes the following:

'I haven't committed a crime. What I did was fail to comply with the law.' (David Dinkins, former Mayor of New York City)

At the end of the book the author thanks all those who have contributed via email to the content of this book, but regrets the fact that individual contributions can not be acknowledged. An interesting read.


Lives of Confucius: Civilization's Greatest Sage Through the Ages
Lives of Confucius: Civilization's Greatest Sage Through the Ages
by Michael Nylan
Edition: Hardcover

2 of 2 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Lives of Confucius: By Michael Nylan & Thomas Wilson, 8 Feb. 2013
Michael Nylan is Professor of Early Chinese History at the University of California, and Thomas Wilson is Associate Professor of History at Hamilton College. Nylan has published a number of books about the life of the Chinese scholar-sage Confucius (551-479 BCE), and Wilson has published research regarding the formation of the cult of confucius. The premise of this book is based upon the idea put forward by the eminent 20th Chinese historian Gu Jiegang (1893-1980), who advised that the story of Confucius should be studied 'one life at a time.'

The hardback (2010) edition contains 293 numbered pages and consists of an Acknowledgements section, 7 chapters and an Epilogue. The authors use pinyin to transliterate important Chinese terms into English, together with Chinese ideograms. Each chapter contains a 'Conclusion' and a 'Further Reading' section. The book is arranged as follows:

Acknowledgements
1) Kongzi, in Sima Qian's Shiji and the Analects (Michael Nylan)
2) Kongzi and His Critics (Michael Nylan)
3) Kongzi, the Uncrowned King (Michael Nylan)
4) The Canonical Confucius from Han Through Song (Thomas Wilson)
5) The Supreme Sage and the Imperial Cults: Ritual and Doctrine (Thomas Wilson)
6) The Cultic Confucius in the Imperial Temple and Ancestral Shrine: (Thomas Wilson)
7) A Confucsion of Confuciuses: Invoking Confucius in the Modern World (Michael Nylan)
Epilogue - American Perceptions of the Chinese
Notes
Index

This is a highly reliable academic study of the biography of the historical Confucius, but it is much more than this. The authors have produced what can only be described as a 'forensic' examination of Confucius the man, the scholar, the sage, the imperial cult, and justifier of modern Chinese consummerism. The authors make clear that throughout history the subject of 'Confucius', has been misrepresented, misinterpreted, ignored, maligned, re-invented, and misundestood to such extents that it is now difficult to 'see' the real Confucius through the fog of assumption. The authors present the honest, moral philosopher that Confucius was during his lifetime, and carefulling chart how his memory, primarily through the texts that preserve his teachings, has been developed far beyond the context of his actual existence. This distortion is often so far of the mark, that even in modern China the memory of Confucius is sometimes used to justify selfishness and greed. A definative book that deserves serious study.


Greek Warfare: Myth and Realities
Greek Warfare: Myth and Realities
by Hans van Wees
Edition: Paperback
Price: £22.79

5 of 5 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Greek Warfare: Myth and Realities: By Hans van Wees, 28 Jan. 2013
The author - Hans van Wees - is Reader in Ancient History at University College London, and has worked on a number of books regarding warfare in Greece and Rome. He is uniquely placed, through his published works, to comment with authority on this subject. The book carries the subtitle of 'Myths and Reality' and covers the subject of warfare as practiced in ancient and classical Greece.

The paperback (2011) edition contains 349 numbered pages, and contains an Introduction, a Conclusion and an Appendices, as well as 15 chapters separated into 6 parts. The book is illustrated throughout by lined drawings and coloured photographs. The book is comprised of the following:

Introduction
Part I - War and Peace
Part II - Citizens and Soldiers
Part III - Amateur Arms
Part IV - Agonal and Total Warfare
Part V - The Experience of Combat
Part VI - Ruling the Waves
Conclusion
Appendices
1) Athenian manpower in 480 and 431 BC
2) Changes in Spartan military organisation from 480 to 371 BC
3) The historicity and date of Homeric warfare
Notes

Much of the content that comprises the chapters has been drawn from a number of earlier published work by Hans van Wees. This has been skillfully organised and bond together by new research developed solely for this volume. Whilst offering a highly readable narrative about Greek warfare, Van Wees argues that much of the evidence from ancient and classical Greece (in the form of written texts and artistic depictions of various kinds, and historical artefacts), is often interpreted far too literally by modern scholars, who are motivated by a highly selective and idealised vision of their subject. To rectify this, Van Wees offers a much more critical assessment of the evidence.

This work is important for the study of ancient and classical Greece and maybe described as a pivotal historical document. Van Rees carefully cross-references various sources to establish the most likely and therefore authentic scenario. In this regard he presents Greek warfare from the perspective of the individual Greek soldier, and from the broad social and economic structures which shaped and influenced campaigns and wars. Of course, there is much reference to Homer's Illiad and Odyssey, but also an array of writings from differing philosophers and historians, including Plato, Plutarch, Xenophon, Herodotus, Aristole, and Thucydides and many others. This literary evidence is carefully assessed alongside the physical evidence that has survived for over two thousand years, including artistic impressions painted on and vases and vessels, statues of Greek hoplite warriors, helmets, armour, and weaponry, as well as graffiti left on ancient Egyptian monuments by Greek soldiers on campaign. This is a book that charts the development of the use of the hoplite warrior throughtout the ages, and how these warriors were usually assisted in various ways by the 'light-armed' soldiery of the state. However, this book also includes the use and development of chariots, cavalry and the Greek navy. A superb book in every way.


Grey Wolf: The Escape of Adolf Hitler
Grey Wolf: The Escape of Adolf Hitler
by Simon Dunstan
Edition: Paperback

4 of 8 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Grey Wolf: Simon Dunstan & Gerrard Williams, 27 Jan. 2013
This book has two authors of some renown. Simon Dunstan has written over 50 books documenting the history of WWII and has made documentaries for the History Channel, whilst Gerrard Williams has spent over 30 years working for the BBC, Sky News and Reuters. As a journalist he has covered many of the most important events in modern history. This book seeks to question the conventional narrative that Adolf Hitler died in his bunker in 1945.

The hardback (2011) edition contains 352 numbered pages, and consists of a Preface, Introduction, and four parts subdivided into chapters. There are a number of maps, diagrams, and photographs (both in colour and black and white). On the inside of the hardback cover there are reproduced various FBI and Justice Department documents pertaining to the possible survival of Adolf Hitler after WWII. The book is arranged as follows:

Preface
Introduction
Part I - The Nazis Triumphant
1) Fuelling the Beast 2) The Turning Tide 3) The Brown Eminence 4) The Rape of Europe 5) Nazi Gold 6) Eagle's Flight and Land of Fire.
Part II - The Hunters
7) Red Indians and Private Armies 8) The Hunting Trail to Paris 9) Cash, Rockets, and Uranium 10) The Fog of War 11) Raiders of the Reich 12) Bormann, Dulles, and Operation Crossword 13) "Wo Bist Adolf Hitler?".
Part III - The Escape
14) The Bunker 15) The Flight 16) Gruppe Seewolf 17) Argentina-Land of Silver.
Part IV - The Grey Wolf of Patagonia
18) The U-Boat Landings 19) To Patagonia 20) Adolf Hitler's Valley 21) Greedy Allies, Loyal Friends 22) Departure 23) Ghosts in the Shadows.

The authors assert that Adolf Hitler did not make his last public appearance on March 20th 1945 awarding medals to the Hitler Youth, but that this was in fact Hitler's double - one Gustav Weber - playing the part of the Fuhrer. The idea of the use of a `double' is based upon evidence provided by Prof. Alf Linney of University College London, a noted face recognition expert (see `Comments' section). He compared photographs of Hitler with photographs from this last appearance, and concluded that they were not the same person. The authors then present the case that Adolf Hitler and his wife - Eva Braun - did not die in the Fuhrerbunker in April 1945, but that Martin Bormann arranged for two actors to be killed in their place. It is the remains of these two bodies found outside the Fuhrerbunker that formed the cover story to Hitler's escape. The author's further assert that Hitler and his entourage escaped from the Fuhrerbunker via a secret tunnel and flew out of Berlin (to Denmark and Spain), and after a further journey to the coast, embarked upon a two month voyage aboard a U-boat which eventually reached Argentina and the relative safety of the German expat community. The authors believe that Adolf Hitler lived out his life in Argentina and passed away in his bed in 1962.
Comment Comments (6) | Permalink | Most recent comment: Feb 10, 2013 6:03 AM GMT


London's Strangest Tales
London's Strangest Tales
by Tom Quinn
Edition: Paperback

3 of 4 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars London's Strange Tales:By Tom Quinn, 14 Nov. 2012
This book is a delightful read. Its full title is - 'For Your Reading Pleasure, London's Strangest Tales, Extraordinary But True Stories.' It forms a volume in the 'Strangest' series also published by Portico. The author - Tom Quinn - has compiled chapters that span a thousand years of London history. The chapters work forward in chronological order, starting from 950 CE and culminating in 2007.

The 2007 paperback edition contains 378 numbered pages, and is comprised of an Introduction and 178 short chapters. Each chapter is comprised of 1 to 3 pages and covers an interesting and important aspect of the history of London. As a book, the combined effect of the many chapters is that a developmental history is presented to the reader in snap-shot format that is surprising coherent and detailed. Quinn's style of writing is highly engaging, intelligent, insightful, and humourous. An examples of chapters are as follows:

Why Part of Scotland is in London (950)
Put Out Your Fire (1066)
Human Lavatory (1190)
The Queen's Bosom on Show((1597)
Cockney Maori Chief (1776)
Eighteenth-Century Viagra (1779)
Trains Only for the Dead (1854)
How Crime Became Art (1995)

The short chapter presentation often disguises the fact that this is a work of great research that has probably involved the author visiting many of the buildings, open spaces, strange objects, monuments, and graveyards that he writes about. The writing style takes the reader through the streets of London within a time-travelling extravaganza!


From Peking to Mandalay: A Journey From North China to Burma Through Tibetan Seuch'uan and Yunnan,
From Peking to Mandalay: A Journey From North China to Burma Through Tibetan Seuch'uan and Yunnan,
by Reginald Fleming Johnston
Edition: Paperback
Price: £19.71

2 of 2 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars From Peking To Mandalay: By Reginald Johnston, 19 Aug. 2012
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This is a very interesting travelogue written by the Scotish academic and British colonial official - Reginald Johnston (1874-1938). The full title of this book is 'From Peking to Mandalay A Journey from North China to Burma Through Tibetan Ssuch'uan and Yunnan'. This is a journey that took around 5 months to complete in 1906 - beginning in January and finishing in June. The return journey via Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Singapore, Hong Kong and Shanghai, took around 4 months and is only briefly mentioned toward the end of the book. Strictly speaking Johnston's journey actually began from the coastal area of of the province of Shandong known as Wei Hai Wei, which at that time was a British administrated concession - with Johnston serving as a District Officer. During the journey he was accompanied throughtout by his bull-terrier dog named Jim - who passed away shortly after the completion of the travels.

The paperback (1908) edition has been recently digitalised by Google Books from the original copy preserved at the University of Michigan Library, and further re-printed by Amazon.co.uk. It contains 460 numbered pages and consists of an Introduction, 18 chapters, and 2 Appendices. Johnston makes use of the Wade and Giles system of rendering Chinese terms into phonetic English - a system that has been replaced in recent years by modern pinyin. The general reader may initially find the spellings of place names a little confusing at first, but once a geographical perspective is attained, the journey unfolds in a more or less logical manner, travelling from north China (Peking-Beijing) in a sook is an interesting historical document written at the time of outh west direction toward Ssuch'uan (Sichuan) and Yunnan. The chapter titles describe this journey place by place, but in reality the bulk of the book deals specifically with Ssuch'uan and Yunnan - two provinces of China that at that time were often ruled by Tibetan kings or Lamas, and were inhabited by independent tribes of non-Chinese peoples, etc. For various reasons Johnston could not go to Lhasa as he first intended and so had to travel around the border lands of Tibet to eventually arrive in Mandalay on the 20th of June, 1906.

This book serves as a very interesting historical document written at the height of British colonial power, and at a time when China was still ruled by its own imperial dynasty. This is reflected in Johnston's style of writing which is always presented from a dominant Eurocentric perspective. However, despite categorising the various peoples in and around China as being from 'civilised' or 'primitive' races, by and large Johnston writes from a very refined (and unusual) sympathetic perspective regarding the Chinese people themselves, and was even known to have criticised the presence of Christian missionaries in that country. Prior to this journey, Johnston had travelled to Laos. During this earlier adventure Johnston had come into contact with Theravada Buddhism and converted to its practice - which remained an intellectual pursuit for him throughout his life. Despite his extensive knowledge of China, and his experience with Buddhism, Johnston views Chinese and Tibetan Buddhism as being corrupt versions of an earlier 'pure' Buddhism. Indeed, in his criticism of Chinese Buddhism he appears to know nothing about Ch'an, Tiantai, Mantrayana or the fact that a form of Theravada Buddhism had been present in China at an earlier date and had subsequently died-out. Instead he reduces Chinese Buddhism to the chanting of 'Namo Amitabha Buddha' (Omitofo), as if this was a bad practice, and appears to be unaware that in Theravada Buddhism - the Buddhism he considers 'pure' - it is a routine practice to chant the Buddha's name!

Despite the limited knowledge applied to the difficult and complex subject of Buddhism, Johnston's book is a compelling read. One is left with the distinct impression that Johnston is gathering information about Buddhism as he goes, building a coherent picture that would eventually culminated in his 1913 book entitled 'Chinese Buddhism'. In the book at hand we learn a number of interesting facts. For instance, even as early as 1906, the Chinese imperial government intended to annex Tibet and turn it into a Chinese administered province as a means to break the hold of the Tibetan kings and Lamas living in Ssuch'uan and Yunnan areas. Indeed, at this time China was at war with Tibet and had suffered a number of military defeats in the border areas. Johnston explains that in western Ssuch'uan (and surrounding areas) the Indian Rupee coin was common currency - accepted by both the Tibetan and Chinese authorities. This British coin had the image of Queen Victoria upon it and travelled between India and Burma via the Chinese and Tibetan trade routes. As Queen Victoria was considered the 'Head Lama' of the British empire - this coin became known locally as 'Lama Tou'. As Johnston (a graduate of both Edinburgh and Oxford) could read, write and speak and Chinese, he was able to report all the gossip of the time first-hand. Johnston's description of his journey is augmented throughout by very interesting black and white photographs and maps. A very interesting book full of enexpected gems worthy of study.


Reginald Johnston: Chinese Mandarin (Scots' Lives Series): Tutor and Advisor to the Last Emperor of China
Reginald Johnston: Chinese Mandarin (Scots' Lives Series): Tutor and Advisor to the Last Emperor of China
by Shiona Airlie
Edition: Paperback

1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Reginald Manderin - Chinese Manderin: By Shiona Airlie, 11 Aug. 2012
This is a delightful biography in the Scots' Lives series (edited by Isaebail MacLeod), concerning the life and times of Sir Reginald Johnston (1874-1938) - a Scotsman who rose through the ranks of the British Colonial Service in China during the first-quarter of the 20th century, and who was eventually appointed as the personal (foreign) tutor to the last emperor of China - Pu Yi.

The paperback (2001) edition contains 104 numbered pages and is comprised of four chapters arranged in chronological order. This design makes the book very easy to access as the story is presented in logical segments of time:

Acknowledgements
Places to Visit
Chapter 1 - 1874-1903
Chapter 2 - 1904-1918
Chapter 3 - 1919-1926
Chapter 4 1927-1938
Further Reading
Index

The author - Shiona Airlie - has performed a great service with the compilation of this book, as it present the life of Reginald Johnston in a single volumn. Johnston - played by Peter O'Tool in the film The Last Emperor - travelled widely through China and surrounding countries, as well as being recognised in Britain as a fine academic in the field of Chinese studies - indeed, Johnston was a very able Sinologist who spent decades in China. He could read, write and speak Chinese, which made him very popular to the British authorities and the Chinese people in Hong Kong and We Hai Wei (Shandong), two of the areas that was officially posted. Not long after arriving in China around 1900, he converted to Buddhism and became opposed to Christian missionary activity, even writing a book about it under his Chinese name Lin Shaoyang - explaining exactly what the Christian missionaries did, and why the Chinese people were opposed to their presence. Johnston also wrote widely upon Buddhism, Confucianism and his time with the last Chinese emperor. A very good book about an incredible person.


AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF OCCULTISM. A Compendium of Information on the Occult Sciences, Ocult Personalities, Psychic Science, Magic, Demonology, Spiritism, Mysticism and Metaphysics
AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF OCCULTISM. A Compendium of Information on the Occult Sciences, Ocult Personalities, Psychic Science, Magic, Demonology, Spiritism, Mysticism and Metaphysics
by Lewis Spence
Edition: Hardcover

1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Encyclopaedia of the Occult: By Lewis Spence, 3 Aug. 2012
This is a remarkable for a number of very different reasons. Although originally published in 1920, it is incredible to consider that no recent book has come close to reproducing the authority of this text, upon the subject of the 'occult'. The word occult must be understood, so that the premise of this book can be fully understood. Occult is Greek and refers to knowledge and wisdom which is 'hidden' from plane view. The Greek mystery religions, for instance, required an initiation ceremony and a structured path of study under a master, before the hidden teachings were revealed. In Astromony, an 'occultation' occurs when an apparently larger body passes in front of, and obscures an apparently smaller body - these events can also be termed an eclipse. Therefore, this book may be defined as a collection of facts relating to schools of spiritual thought, the knowledge of which is not common or familiar to the general public, and is obscured from obvious view by the passing of time and contemporary modes of politcal and religious thinking.

The paperback (1977) Citadel edition contains 461 numbered pages, listing more than 2,500 comprehensive entries, arranged in alphabetical order (A-Z). The beginning of the book has 23 (unnumbered) pages of interesting illustrations, gathered from all over the world of occult thought, and 21 (separately numbered) pages of introductory material. The book is arranged as follows:

1) Illustrasions (23 pages).
2) Publisher's Preface (Citadel - 1 page).
3) Original Preface - Lewis Spence - 1 page.
4) Introduction - Lewis Spence - 2 pages.
5) Index - 11 pages.
6) Select Bibliography - 2 pages.
7) Over 2,500 entries - 440 pages.

Lewis Spence (1874-1955) was a Scottish journalist, author, political activist, poet and researcher of Celtic spirituality, folklore and the occult. He is also accredited with writing the first book to clearly associate the political ideology of Nazism (German National Socialism), with a possible association with certain occult-like elements. This book, as well as present a breath-taking array of topics and facts, is also indicative of the changing spirituality in Western Europe, immediately following the disasterous first world war. This book represents the growing interest at the time, in spiritualism and the need people felt to contact those relatives who had passed away. One of the book's subtitles defines the book perfectly:

'A compendium of information on the occult sciences, occult personalities, psychic science, magic, demonology, spiritualism, mysticism and metaphysics.'

The subject matter is diverse, covering ancient Greece, Africa, Asia and beyond. One does not have to agree or disagree with this book's contents to appreciate the scale of Lewis' achievement.


The Communist Manifesto (Penguin Classics)
The Communist Manifesto (Penguin Classics)
by Karl Marx
Edition: Paperback
Price: £5.99

1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars The Communist Manifesto - Oxford World's Classic: Edited by David McLellan, 7 July 2012
The Communist Manifesto is an extraordinary and succinct statement of leftwing political intention, stemming from the theory of Socialism and Communism as espoused by both Karl Marx (1818-83), and his academic companion (and friend), Friedrich Engels (1820-95). It is presented here as a volume in the Oxford World's Classics series, and as such represents a very important document in world political history. It was written in German and became known by the title 'Das Kommunistische Manifest' - or 'The Communist Manifesto', although its original title is 'Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei' - or 'Manifesto of the Communist Party'. This publication is edited by the British academic David McLellan - Professor of Political Theory - at the University of Kent.

The paperback (2008) edition contains 68 numbered pages and contains an extensive Introduction, the main text, and 7 separate Prefaces, each Preface appearing in various editions over the years;

Introduction (By David McLellan)
Notes on the Text
Select Biography
A Chronology of The Communist Manifesto

The Communist Manifesto - Main Text

Appendices;
Preface - German Edition - 1872, Marx & Engels
Preface - Russian Edition - 1882, Marx & Engels
Preface - German Edition - 1883, Engels
Preface - English Edition - 1888, Engels
Preface - German Edition - 1890, Engels (with reference to Marx & Engels 1882)
Preface - Polish Edition - 1892, Engels
Preface - Italian Edition - 1893, Engels

Karl Marx composed this text between December, 1847 and January, 1848. The work is a blend of German philosophy, French socialism, and British classical economic theory. It was written at the request of the Communist League based in London. It was published in London in February 1948 - in German - and in English in 1850. Friedrich Engels had assisted Marx through his work on earlier drafts, and through his advice regarding style and content - although Engels later claimed that the work was entirely a product of Marx himself. The many Prefaces included in this edition trace the development and popularity of this text as it spreads through Europe and into Russia.

The Manifesto exposes the corruption and blatant exploitation that is implicit within the Capitalist economic system. Marx states that through the Industrialisation process, an exploited working-class (the Proletarian) is being structured and trained (through the mechanisation of the factory experience), and that this (oppressed) disciplined body of men and women, will eventually develop an awareness (class consciousness) about their situation, and rise-up as one body, and thus take the power away from the Capitalist masters, the 'Bourgeoisie'. Marx (and Engels) view this process of Proletarian development as being both politically and economically conditioned and historically inevitable. Marx posits that this formally exploited class will create a society that is diametrically opposed to the Capitalist system that created them, and as a consequence, create a fair world based upon sharing and mutual support. This society is termed both 'Socialist' and 'Communist'. A superb edition of a classic historical text.


(THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO) BY Paperback (Author) Paperback Published on (06 , 2008)
(THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO) BY Paperback (Author) Paperback Published on (06 , 2008)
by Friedrich Engels
Edition: Paperback

1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars The Communist Manifesto: By Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels, 7 July 2012
The Communist Manifesto is an extraordinary and succinct statement of leftwing political intention, stemming from the theory of Socialism and Communism as espoused by both Karl Marx (1818-83), and his academic companion (and friend), Fiedrich Engels (1820-95). It is presented here as a volume in the Oxford World's Classics series, and as such represents a very important document in world political history. It was written in German and became known by the title 'Das Kommunistische Manifest' - or 'The Communist Manifesto', although its original title is 'Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei' - or 'Manifesto of the Communist Party'. This publication is edited by the British academic David McLellan - Professor of Political Theory - at the University of Kent.

The paperback (2008) edition contains 68 numbered pages and contains an extensive Introduction, the main text, and 7 separate Prefaces, each Preface appearing in various editions over the years;

Introduction (By David McLellan)
Notes on the Text
Select Biography
A Chronology of The Communist Manifesto

The Communist Manifesto - Main Text

Appendices;
Preface - German Edition - 1872, Marx & Engels
Preface - Russian Edition - 1882, Marx & Engels
Preface - German Edition - 1883, Engels
Preface - English Edition - 1888, Engels
Preface - German Edition - 1890, Engels (with reference to Marx & Engels 1882)
Preface - Polish Edition - 1892, Engels
Preface - Italian Edition - 1893, Engels

Karl Marx composed this text between December, 1847 and January, 1848. The work is a blend of German philosophy, French socialism, and British classical economic theory. It was written at the request of the Communist League based in London. It was published in London in February 1948 - in German - and in English in 1850. Friedrich Engels had assisted Marx through his work on earlier drafts, and through his advice regarding style and content - although Engels later claimed that the work was entirely a product of Marx himself. The many Prefaces included in this edition trace the development and popularity of this text as it spreads through Europe and into Russia.

The Manifesto exposes the corruption and blatant exploitation that is implicit within the Capitalist economic system. Marx states that through the Industrialisation process, an exploited working-class (the Proletarian) is being structured and trained (through the mechanisation of the factory experience), and that this (oppressed) disciplined body of men and women, will eventually develop an awareness (class consciousness) about their situation, and rise-up as one body, and thus take the power away from the Capitalist masters, the 'Bourgeoisie'. Marx (and Engels) view this process of Proletarian development as being both politically and economically conditioned and historically inevitable. Marx posits that this formally exploited class will create a society that is diametrically opposed to the Capitalist system that created them, and as a consequence, create a fair world based upon sharing and mutual support. This society is termed both 'Socialist' and 'Communist'. A superb edition of a classic historical text.


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