Spymaster: Dai Li and the Chinese Secret Service (A Philip E. Lilienthal Book in Asian Studies) Hardcover – 23 May 2003
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Drawing on new archival sources, [Wakeman] has written less a biography of a man than an autopsy of Chiang's China, --"Wall Street Journal"
From the Inside Flap
"A tour de force. Wakeman combines his vast knowledge of Chinese history, his own work on China's police, his skill as a storyteller, and his ten years of being entranced with Dai Li, Chiang Kaishek's Himmler, to bring to life one of China's most imaginative and horrible demons."Ezra F. Vogel, author of "One Step Ahead: Guangdong Under Reform"
"Wakeman masterfully pieces together, in fascinating and extraordinary detail, the rise of Chiang Kai-shek s top spymaster, Dai Li. "Spymaster" captures Dai s persona, explains the extraordinary personal trust Chiang placed in him, and reveals how Dai wielded power from the end of the 1920s to his death in 1946. This comprehensive and meticulous volume brings us into the core structures of Chiang s power and sheds light on many previously dark corners of the Republican body politic. It deeply enriches our knowledge not only of Dai Li and of the Chinese secret service but also of this entire period in Republican China"Kenneth Lieberthal, author of "Governing China: From Revolution Through Reform"
"If Sherlock Holmes had been an historian, the result might have been Frederic Wakeman s astonishing and enthralling story of Dai Li, longtime master of a vast secret world of political intrigue, police terror, drug smuggling, and predatory sex, but also America s collaborator in WWII, whose fingerprints are all over decades of China s twentieth-century history. Thanks to the mountain of evidence uncovered by Wakeman, Dai Li is no longer the mystery man of Asia. "Stephen F. Cohen, author of "Failed Crusade: America and the Tragedy of Post-Communism Russia""
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Dai Li rose to prominence in with General Chiang after the failure of the 1911 Chinese revolution. The Manchu dynasty finally abdicated after the country was being ripped apart by civil war. The nationalist Kuomintang (KMT) party led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen led the first election in Chinese history, only to watch everything collapse a few years later when regional war lords declared sovereignty. In the 1920's, Chiang Kai-shek, who had been chancellor at the nationalist's Whampoa Military Academy assumed control of the KMT and led it until the day he died. China was tossed around by communist revolutions and regional war lords in the 1920's. In the 1930's it was encroached upon by Japanese imperialists. The generalissimo Chiang dealt with disunity in China by a northern campaign to bring the regional war lords under control He also pursued a scorched earth policy against the communists. Chaing tolerated the Japanese aggression until 1937 when China was officially at war with Japan. During WW2, the United States assisted the nationalists and communists against the Japanese. After the war, the communists were able to seize control of all of mainland China, pushing the nationalists off to a few coastal islands where they remain today.
Dai Lee was another rural young man on the make when he finally joined up with General Chiang's entourage. His family owned some land, but Dai's father had squandered it away. Bored with his education as a school teacher and arranged marriage, he traveled to the big town looking for opportunities. He found it by supplying the generalissimo with daily reports on his own. Eventually, General Chiang noticed the bright young man in the background and appointed him to security chief. Dai Li became so powerful he was known as Chiang Kai-sheck's "Himmler". Dai Li died in a mysterious air plane crash in 1946.
This is a very scholarly book. The author takes great length to phonetically spell out chinese names and terms into English. Plus, he has no compunction at all in publishing the chinese characters for the same whenever necessary. Since so much of the primary sources are available only in Chinese, it's understandable. Given the author was a professor of Chinese history at UCLA, the reader expects it. However, there is no attempt to explain many of the key historical incidents in the book. When the author talks about the hundred days reform of the Guangxu Emperor, he assumes you know what he's talking about. No footnote or glossary to explain. Ditto for the Long March and the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937. Best to read this book with Wikipedia up unless you have a good grasp of modern Chinese history.
And thorough the mysterious life of Dai Li it emerges just how different traditional china is from traditional America. For instance, early in Dai Li's career, the joins a secret society devoted to the generalissimo. Called the Society for Vigorous Practice, General Chiang chairs its first gathering clad in a blue scholar's robe and assigns essay topics. At further meetings he appears in the same garb and grades papers. Huh? One could hardly imagine General Dwight D Eisenhower conduction a bible class dressed as a school master. But in Chinese society,the role of the Confucian scholar was very honored and respected. There is no equivalent in the west.
Wakeman shows how Dai Li was ruthless in his persecution of the generalissimo's enemies. Dai Li maintained his own network of secret prisons and interrogation centers. No one know how many people he killed during his extermination campaign against political rivals. At the same time, Dai Li's agents penetrated the network of spies and saboteurs the invading Japanese army utilized in its occupation of China. There's even a reproduction of the joint of the terms of the Sino-American Special Technical Cooperation Agreement with the government of China in 1943.
But the Dai Li which emerges from the book is a hidden man. No matter how much the author quotes the people who knew him, he never seems to come alive. This was as how Dai Li would have prefered it. He kept innumerable houses and cars, never sleeping in the same location whenever possible. He was the man who infiltrated the Japanese army and Chinese communist party with his agents. But in the end of the book, he remains an enigma.
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