Preface to the Fourth Edition. List of maps. Glossary. A note on coinage. Prelude. 1. The Catholic Monarchs 1469–1516. 2. The rise of empire: Charles V 1516–1558. 3. A world power: Philip II 1556–1598. 4. The crisis of government 1598–1660. 5. Spain’s people in an age of crisis. The survival of the middle classes. 6. The end of the old empire 1660–1714. Appendix 1. Dynastic table of Spanish rulers, 1474–1700. Appendix 2. Economic and demographic statistics. Maps. Bibliographical Note. Index.