- Paperback: 180 pages
- Publisher: InterVarsity Press (Sept. 1980)
- Language: English
- ISBN-10: 0877846111
- ISBN-13: 978-0877846116
- Product Dimensions: 13.7 x 1.5 x 20.8 cm
- Average Customer Review: 5.0 out of 5 stars See all reviews (2 customer reviews)
- Amazon Bestsellers Rank: 1,201,001 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
Scripture Twisting Paperback – 1 Sep 1980
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"In this relatively short book, Sire handily addresses the most common issues encountered when interpreting the Bible. While he specifically refers to examples relevant to cults and new religions, the application of Sire's insights extend far beyond those areas. Scripture Twisting remains a great book nearly 30 years after publication. If you're looking for an introduction to hermeneutics that doesn't read like a textbook, I highly recommend Sire's fine book."--Robert Velarde, robertvelarde.blogspot.com, December 12, 2008
About the Author
James W. Sire (PhD, University of Missouri), formerly a senior editor at InterVarsity Press, is an active speaker and writer. He has taught English, philosophy, theology, and short courses at many universities and seminaries. He continues to be a frequent guest lecturer in the United States and Europe. His InterVarsity Press books and Bible studies includeThe Universe Next Door (a worldviews textbook), Scripture Twisting, Discipleship of the Mind, Chris Chrisman Goes to College, Why Should Anyone Believe Anything at All?, Habits of the Mind: Intellectual Life as a Christian Calling, Naming the Elephant: Worldview as a Concept, Learning to Pray Through the Psalms, Why Good Arguments Often Fail and A Little Primer on Humble Apologetics.
Top Customer Reviews
One amusing example occurs on page 65 where a cult discusses the book of Genesis and Adam. Genesis was written in Hebrew and the author acknowledges this explaining that Adam comes from the Hebrew 'adamah' meaning dust or earth. Then they really go off the rails by splitting Adam into two syllables and expounding on the theme that Adam was "a dam" or blockage... It is really funny but it reminds me of the liberties I have heard some ministers take with the text!
We need to be very cautious in how we read scripture and not make it say things it doesn't. This book does a good job of warning against the worst excesses. Broken down into small examples it is not heavy reading, although tackling an important subject. Highly recommended.
sustainable exegesis of sometimes difficult biblical passages.This book by him charts a clear path through the morass of would-be explanations of biblical doctrines and passages.This book should be required reading for the Christian believer.
Most Helpful Customer Reviews on Amazon.com (beta)
Read this book so you can quickly and easily spot the repeated errors of false teachers like Joel Osteen, Joyce Meyer, Beth Moore, and Sarah Young. Not only will you be able to catch their errors, but you will be able to explain to others how these false teachers are misusing the Bible.
1. The Methodology of Misreading: An Introduction
2. World-View Confusion: A Preliminary View
3. The Text of Scripture
4. Scripture as Rhetoric
5. Scripture as Literature
6. Scripture as Evidence
7. Reasoning from Scripture
8. The Authority of the Bible
9. World-View Confusion: The Heart of the Matter
10. The Discipleship of the Word
In his preface to the book, James Sire writes:
As Christians and, we trust, good readers of the Bible, we need all the help we can get to be sure we are reading the Scripture accurately, that we are indeed worshiping the one true God. That's why I wrote this book: to help all of us-myself as much as anyone-to become better readers of the Scriptures, more devoted followers of our Lord Jesus Christ, more effective communicators of God's truth to all people. But the book also seeks a special audience-those being led, as are so many today, by false teachers into false doctrines and perhaps eventually into eternal darkness (Sire, p. 8).
While the text and the examples within the book are focused on the cults, the lessons are equally important today within Christianity. People within the church misuse and abuse the Bible in the same manner as the cults. Satan uses the same playbook in both cases. It is not that these people want to openly reject the Bible, but rather they misuse use it for their purposes just as Satan did in the temptation of Jesus as recorded in Luke 4:1-13. Sire specifically notes that the Bible is often employed simply to add credibility to false teaching:
The Bible has long been a book that commands attention. If you can employ it in the service of your own cause, you can gain for your cause a certain credibility-even where the Bible is not accepted as the sole authority on matters of faith and life (Sire, p. 41)
How do two people reading the same text come to different conclusions? By "violating the principles of sound literary interpretation":
If traditional Christianity affirms the Bible as its sole authority - sola Scriptura, as the Reformers said - how can these very different religious movements claim Scripture for their own? The obvious answer is the right one, I believe. They can only do so by violating the principles of sound literary interpretation (Sire, p. 12).
It is these violations that Sire describes in Scripture Twisting. He has identified 20 classes of violations:
1. Inaccurate Quotation
2. Twisted Translation
3. The Biblical Hook
4. Ignoring the Immediate Context
5. Collapsing Contexts
7. Word Play
8. The Figurative Fallacy
9. Speculative Readings of Predictive Prophecy
10. Saying but Not Citing
11. Selective Citing
12. Inadequate Evidence
13. Confused Definition
14. Ignoring Alternative Explanations
15. The Obvious Fallacy
16. Virtue by Association
17. Esoteric Interpretation
18. Supplementing Biblical Authority
19. Rejecting Biblical Authority
20. World-View Confusion
As the title of chapter 9 makes clear, Sire recognizes that non-Biblical world-views are the "heart of the matter" and result in or influence many of the other errors of interpretation. Sire writes:
The most significant and pervasive explanation of how the Bible is used to support essentially nonbiblical ideas involves world-view confusion... World-view confusion occurs whenever a reader of Scripture fails to interpret the Bible within the intellectual and broadly cultural framework of the Bible itself and uses instead a foreign frame of reference. In other words, rather than seeing a statement of Scripture as a part of the whole biblical scheme of things, the reader or interpreter views it from a different standpoint and thus distorts the Bible, perhaps seriously, sometimes even reversing the meaning (Sire, pp. 25-26).
In discussing the Biblical Hook, Sire makes an interesting application from the story of Joseph Smith's, founder of the Mormon Church, first vision:
If we find ourselves in the situation he [Joseph Smith] describes before his vision, frustrated because we can't seem to get it handle on God's truth, our response should be to pray for God's wisdom-yes, indeed-hut to apply ourselves again to Scripture and to resist either personal visions proclaiming nonbiblical truth or teaching from others based on such visions. The Bible should only hook us to study more intently the Bible itself. To be hooked on Scripture is to be hooked on truth (Sire, p. 50).
It is all too common today that authors, speakers, and teachers are actively encouraging individuals to look outside the Bible for God's wisdom. Sire accurately compares this to the error made by Joseph Smith. That alone should make Christians very cautious. Not to mention that it denies the sufficiency of Scripture.
Scripture Twisting contains another important reminder about the ordinary use of language by the author's of the Bible:
God chose to reveal himself to us by speaking through his prophets in ordinary language. The rules for understanding the Bible are therefore essentially the same as the rules for understanding Homer, Aeschylus, Dante, Milton, Dickens and Conrad. We are to read in the same spirit as the writer who wrote. If the author wrote a letter, we are to read it as a letter; if a poem, as poetry; if a chronicle, as chronicle; if a parable, as parable; if prophecy, as prophecy (Sire, p. 51).
While we do need the working of the Holy Spirit to correctly apply the Scriptures and come to saving faith, we do not need any special methodologies for reading them properly. For example, in his gospel Luke writes:
It seemed good to me also, having followed all things closely for some time past, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus, that you may have certainty concerning the things you have been taught (ESV, Luke 1:3-4).
Would Luke have said this in his gospel account if he believed that Theophilus would not be able to read it and understand? Could Theophilus understand what Luke wrote before the formation of the supposedly infallible teaching Magisterium of the Roman Catholic Church? Both ideas are nonsense. Each of the human authors of Scripture believed they were writing documents that could be understood by their readers.
If world-view confusion is the heart of the matter for improper Bible use, reading a verse out of context is probably the most common:
From the standpoint of the Bible as literature, the simplest error of reading is the failure to consider the immediate context of the verse or passage in question (Sire, p. 52).
The text of Scripture should first be understood within the context in which it occurs. Any reading which contradicts the meaning of the text in context cannot be a proper interpretation (Sire, p. 58).
As Chris Rosebrough of Pirate Christian Radio regularly reminds his listeners, "The three most important rules for interpreting Scripture are context, context and context." As an aside, it was Rosebrough's recommendation that led me to read Scripture Twisting.
In Scripture Twisting, Sire provides the example of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, founder of Transcendental Meditation, misusing Psalm 46:10, "Be still, and know that I am God", by both misquoting it and taking it out of context. Best-selling "Christian" authors such as Sarah Young have likewise taken Psalm 46:10 out of its context and abused it to justify their own false ideas of meditation and personal extra-Biblical revelation from God:
A life-changing verse has been "Be still, and know that I am God" (Psalm 46:10). Alternate readings for "Be still" are "Relax," "Let go," and "Cease striving" (NASB). This is an enticing invitation from God to lay down our cares and seek His Presence. I believe that God yearns for these quiet moments with us even more than we do. I also believe that He still speaks to those who listen to Him (Young, Introduction, loc. 697).
While that verse may have changed her life, it does not teach what Young has read into the text. When properly taken in the full context of Psalm 46, verse 10 is teaching us that we can stop worrying about the troubles around us. We can "be still", "relax" and "cease striving" because the LORD (Yahweh) "is with us" and He "is our refuge and our strength."
Reading Scripture Twisting will equip readers to recognize errors by the obvious cultists like the Yogi as well as wolves in our midst like Sarah Young. Also, it prevents us from making the same mistakes when we read and interpret the Bible:
A knowledge of misreading goes well with developing good reading habits. Christians who respect biblical authority have a special burden to read right. We, too, are prone to fall into error. In fact, none of us is absolutely right about what God's Word really means. That is why we must ourselves return daily to the Bible-reading and rereading, thinking and rethinking, obeying what we grasp, correcting our earlier readings as new insight is given us, constantly crosschecking our grasp of Scripture with our pastor, our fellow Christians and with the historic understanding of Scripture by orthodox Christianity (Sire, pp. 14-15).
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