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Making Sense of the Old Testament (Three Crucial Questions): Three Crucial Questions by [Longman III, Tremper]
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Making Sense of the Old Testament (Three Crucial Questions): Three Crucial Questions Kindle Edition

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Book Description
Though essential to the Christian faith, the Old Testament remains an enigma to many. Some view it as disjointed and difficult to understand, or as nothing more than a collection of archaic documents that are irrelevant for Christians today. In clear and concise language, Tremper Longman addresses three questions to help resolve this problem:

- What are the keys to understanding the Old Testament?

- Is the God of the Old Testament also the God of the New Testament?

- How is the Christian to apply the Old Testament to life?

Christians often face a number of obstacles to their understanding of the Old Testament, including differences in culture, worldviews, traditions, language, and geography. Longman provides practical principles for achieving a fuller understanding of what the Old Testament says.

Throughout the history of the church there has been much debate concerning the differences between how God related to humans in the Old Testament and in the New Testament. The author points out false stereotypes Christians may have, then demonstrates that the presentation of God is consistent in both testaments.

Of the three questions addressed, the third is perhaps the most practical. Longman looks at each section of the Old Testament--law, history, poetry, wisdom, and prophecy--and explains the issues involved in applying that section to Christian life today. Scripture and subject indexes are included.

Tremper Longman III (Ph.D., Yale University) is professor of Old Testament at Westmont College and is a leading biblical scholar. He has written numerous scholarly and popular books, including "The Book of Ecclesiastes", "How to Read the Psalms", and "Literary Approaches to Biblical Interpretation".


Editors' Preface

Author's Preface

1 What Are the Keys to Understanding the Old Testament?

2 Is the God of the Old Testament also the God of the New Testament?

3 How Is the Christian to Apply the Old Testament to Life?

Scripture Index

Subject Index

About the Author

Tremper Longman III (Ph.D., Yale University) is professor of Old Testament at Westmont College and is a leading biblical scholar. He has written numerous scholarly and popular books, including "The Book of Ecclesiastes, How to Read the Psalms, "and "Literary Approaches to Biblical Interpretation."

Product details

  • Format: Kindle Edition
  • File Size: 419 KB
  • Print Length: 164 pages
  • Page Numbers Source ISBN: 0801058287
  • Publisher: Baker Academic (1 Feb. 1999)
  • Sold by: Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
  • Language: English
  • ASIN: B005OYUJ44
  • Text-to-Speech: Enabled
  • X-Ray:
  • Word Wise: Enabled
  • Enhanced Typesetting: Not Enabled
  • Average Customer Review: 4.0 out of 5 stars 1 customer review
  • Amazon Bestsellers Rank: #1,322,688 Paid in Kindle Store (See Top 100 Paid in Kindle Store)
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Format: Paperback Verified Purchase
Just read this again. A good book for someone struggling with Old Testament/New Testament issues. Probably not for the serious scholar but definitely for someone want to understand their Bible and to make sense of 'troublesome' Old Testament passages in the light of Christ. Tremper Longman is increasingly popular on my bookcase
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Most Helpful Customer Reviews on Amazon.com (beta)

Amazon.com: HASH(0x8ce53330) out of 5 stars 8 reviews
8 of 8 people found the following review helpful
HASH(0x8c9eaeac) out of 5 stars Concise Discussion of the Old Testament for Christians 23 Sept. 2007
By Craig Stephans - Published on Amazon.com
Format: Paperback
Tremper Longman argues that Christians struggle to understand much of the New Testament, because they do not have understanding of the Old Testament. Longman's contention that many Christians spend no time in the Old Testament becomes problematic in light of his claim that at the "center of the Old Testament stands Jesus Christ

He divides his book into three parts; each part answers one of the following questions:
1. What are the keys to understanding the Old Testament?
2. Is the God of the Old Testament also the God of the New Testament?
3. How is the Christian to apply the Old Testament to life?

Longman does not attempt an exhaustive approach to answering these questions. He provides a solid framework that serves to point readers in the right direction and to correct misperceptions. Longman's answers are concise and do not waver from the point of the section. This helps to get readers beyond their obstacles to the Old Testament and to stimulate interest in it.

Longman recognizes that understanding of the Old Testament does not come naturally to Christians. The Old Testament has severe differences to the New Testament, as well as having differences to our culture. He offers ways to bridge these gaps and to make the Old Testament more penetrable for Christians.

Two helpful approaches suggested by Longman are to read Bible passages in the context of the entire Bible and for Christians to read the Bible in the context of a Christian community where Biblical discussions can occur.

Longman explains the continuity of the image of God from the Old Testament to the New Testament by showing the theme of covenant through the Bible. This begins in Genesis and finds its fulfillment in Jesus Christ. In the covenants, Longman shows the gracious condescendence of God to humanity.

The most provocative theme that Longman cites is that of the temple. In the Old Testament, God uses the tabernacle and temple to fellowship with people and to make his home among them. Longman writes that God eventually comes to live among people in Jesus Christ, who lived and dwelt among us.

Longman emphasizes the illustration of God's desire for friendship with people in the story of the Garden of Eden. Longman writes, "The man and woman could meet freely with God anywhere in the Garden. Genesis 2 gives us the picture of relational bliss"

For Longman, the differing genres of the Old Testament all serve the primarily to communicate God's will to people. Longman discusses the nuances of applying the genres to our lives, but overall they reveal God's desires for our lives and serve as agents for growth.

Longman writes of the Old Testament history narratives, the most predominant genre, "Jesus is the center of that history, because he brings to a climax the plan of God's salvation." Of the wisdom literature, Longman writes, "Being wise, at bottom, does not entail a mass of facts to be learned; it is a relationship with God." These are two examples of how Longman presents the Old Testament as pointing Christians to a relationship with God.

He highlights his belief in the following principle that runs through the Old Testament and New Testament: "We are not saved by the law or by our obedience. For the ancient Israelites in slavery in Egypt and for modern American Christians, salvation comes only by the grace of God."

Overall, Longman directs Christians to view the Old Testament as a great reservoir for spiritual growth in Christ.
Shakespeare On Spirituality: Life-Changing Wisdom from Shakespeare's Plays
7 of 8 people found the following review helpful
HASH(0x8c9eaf00) out of 5 stars Making Sense of the Old Testament 5 Jun. 2000
By A Customer - Published on Amazon.com
Format: Paperback
Tremper Longman does an excellent job of focusing, for the Bible students, the need to understand Old Testament. The questions that he addresses concerning the need for a proper appreciation of the Old Testament are refreshing and necessary for the church today. It is a very readable treatise for anyone who wants to know why the Old Testament is inportant for Chrsitians today. I teach Bible and have made it part of my introductory lectures on the need for studying the Old Testament. If this is a subject you are interested in you may want to read his Introduction to the Old Testament, or He Gave Us Stories by Richard Pratt.
2 of 2 people found the following review helpful
HASH(0x8ccc82b8) out of 5 stars Good Start... 10 Mar. 2007
By Student - Published on Amazon.com
Format: Paperback
This book helps us to recognize that we need to devote much more time to the study of the Old Testament. The author does a decent job of answering 3 most important questions regarding the Old Testament:

1. What are the keys to understanding the Old Testament?

2. Is the God of the Old Testament also the God of the New Testament?

3. How is the Christian to apply the Old Testament to his/her life?

The author does a decent job in answering the three questions, although I was hoping for much more in depth responses.

One quote I like, "We cannot truly understand a biblical passage with just our head, but must involve our heart and our actions as well."
HASH(0x8c9ee1a4) out of 5 stars Excellent detailed answers to questions regarding the Old Testament 30 Sept. 2015
By Amazon Customer - Published on Amazon.com
Format: Paperback Verified Purchase
In 'Making Sense of the Old Testament' Tremper Longman gives an insightful analysis of three questions to consider when reading the Old Testament books of the Bible:

1) What are the keys to understanding the Old Testament?
2) Is the God of the Old Testament also the God of the New Testament?
3) How is the Christian to apply the Old Testament to life?

Each of these are very good questions and, if a Christian reader is honest, these can be questions that we can struggle with when reading the entirety of the Bible, and Longman's responses help give clarity to some of these challenging questions.

For the first question about understanding the Old Testament, Longman gives a number of good steps to follow when reading one of the OT books, including understanding the intention of the writer, reading a book in context, understanding the genre of a passage as well as considering the historical or cultural background. In doing so this helps shed light and deeper meaning on what God is saying through that particular book of the Old Testament.

For the second question that addresses the perceived differences between the God of the OT and NT, Longman identifies the importance of covenants in understanding the framework of the Bible, and how Yahweh is the center and Jesus Christ is the ultimate fulfillment of covenant. The New Testament is a fulfillment in continuity of the redemptive message of the Old Testament. The various struggles and difficulties of Israel give way to the spiritual battles of the church which in turn anticipate the final battle at the end of time and culminate in the return of Christ Jesus.

For the final question about application, Longman speaks about reading the OT in the larger context of the entire cannon of Scripture and understanding the transformative effect the entirety of the Word can have on a believer's life. We see in the Old Testament God's redemptive history in dealing with a sinful humanity, His grace and mercy shown to sinners and the prophetic revelation that leads ultimately to the fulfillment of God's redemptive plan in the New Testament through the birth, death and resurrection of Christ.
4 of 6 people found the following review helpful
HASH(0x8c9ee144) out of 5 stars Somewhat Helpful, But Gave Too Much Ground to Bad Theology 13 Jan. 2007
By Matthew R. Perry - Published on Amazon.com
Format: Paperback
Tremper Longman, III, serves as the Robert H. Gundry Professor of Biblical Studies and the chair of the religious studies department at Westmont College in Santa Barbara, California. He is the author of numerous books and commentaries, including Introduction to the Old Testament.

This volume is part of the 3 Crucial Questions series edited by Grant R. Osbourne and Richard J. Jones. Longman states, "It is vitally important for us to work at our appreciation and understanding to the Old Testament" (11). His hope is that this work will "help revive in the reader a sense of the importance of the Old Testament for Christian faith and practice" (12). Longman desires to help the interpreter of the Old Testament confront the obstacles before him.


Longman's volume contains three chapters. Chapter One gives various keys to understanding the Old Testament. He provides an overview of the study of the Old Testament and outlines the attractions and obstacles found therein. Longman outlines how God communicates his revelation to us: God --- human author --- biblical text --- first readers --- present-day readers. With this paradigm in place, Longman recommends some principles for successful interpretation. The first principle is to discover the author's intended meaning. The second principle is to "read Scripture in its context" (32) --- which he calls the "most basic of all principles in reading literature" (32). Longman notes, "God chose to communicate his revelation to us in literary forms that we recognize from other written works" (32). The third principle is to "identify the genre of the book and passage" (39). Principle four is to "consider the historical and cultural background of the Bible" (47) while principle five urges the interpreter to "consider the grammar and structure within the passage" (48). Principle six tells the interpreter to "interpret experience in the light of Scripture, not Scripture in the light of experience" (50). Longman's seventh interpretive principle is to "always seek the full counsel of Scripture" (51). He notes here that "the most important ideas in the Bible are stated hundreds of times," and that we must "determine the meaning of the unclear verse by examining the clear teaching of Scripture" (51). Principle eight states, "Discover how the Scripture passage presents Jesus Christ" (51) and principle nine concludes this section by advising the interpreter to "be open-minded and tolerant of other interpretations" (53).

Longman's aim in chapter 2 ("Is the God of the Old Testament also the God of the New Testament?") is to answer the false Old Testament stereotypes plaguing Christians by showing the intricate unity of the Testaments. These stereotypes consist of how they perceive the different portrayals of God in each of the Testaments. Longman shows how God is the center of both the Old and New Testaments, the "obvious answer" (59) to what the Bible is about. Longman notes that "God is presented in the concreteness of vivid similes and metaphors [that] arise out of everyday experience" (59) and occur in "distinct phases" (86). The relationships that God possesses with his people as their covenant king of the Old Testament with Jesus Christ fulfilling that covenant. He also serves as our divine warrior, which shows "strong continuity as we move from the holy wars of Yahweh to the spiritual warfare of Jesus and then finally to the climactic battles associated with the second coming of Christ and the fuller judgment" (71).

Chapter Three deals with the practical issues of the Old Testament on the Christian life. He cites two different realms of thinking on this matter: that of dispensationalism and theonomy. Dispensationalism is defined as when God worked in the Old Testament through the law and the New Testament through grace. Theonomy argues that "the Old Testament laws and penalties are still in effect today" (105). Longman spends a considerable amount of time discussing the law in the Old Testament. The reasons are twofold. First, "the law provides the most obvious answers to the question under consideration" (123). Secondly, he notes that "it is not immediately clear ... exactly how the Christian relates to the law today" (123). Longman systematically addresses each genre of the Old Testament and takes the interpreter step-by-step through extracting principles to apply to the Christian life.

Critical Analysis

Longman expertly exposes the commonalities of the Old Testament and New Testament while dealing honestly and directly with the main obstacles and issues arising from critics who see no connection. His prayer was that his words "will give help to those who struggle with the proper interpretation of the oldest portions of God's written revelation to his human creatures" (12). Even though Longman gives a lot of ground in his dialogue with these various critics, he does succeed in presenting some good principles for solid interpretation.

The reader will appreciate how Longman addresses not only ways to overcome the obstacles, but he presents the various obstacles in an objective and forthright manner. This type of understanding from a scholar with Longman's credentials will connect with any reader regardless of their biblical or theological training. For instance, in Chapter 1 he mentions four different obstacles Christians must overcome when interpreting Old Testament literature: "(1) its length, (2) its antiquity, (3) its foreignness, and (4) its place in the history of God's redemption (18)." In Chapter 2, he deals with "false stereotypes" projected on God's character on how God exacts justice and the immediacy of his judgments on Gentiles and Jews. "The judgment, exclusion, and harshness of the Old Testament are contrasted with the salvation, inclusion, and compassion of the New" (56). Since Longman presents these critical and skeptical views with such candor, directness, and honesty, he certainly invites those same critics and skeptics to understand his case as he seems to understand theirs.

Longman also provides a rather chapter that is pastoral in nature in Chapter 3 on "How is the Christian to Apply the Old Testament to Life?" Longman is not content merely to stay within the realms of history, exegesis, and hermeneutics. He now deals with the average layperson in the average church who sits under weekly preaching waiting to hear a word from God. He deals squarely with whether the Old Testament is relevant, identifying two extreme schools of thought that plague our churches (theonomy and dispensationalism). While the layperson may not be able to define, he certainly understands the concept. He makes a valiant attempt to forego trite answers in order to honestly and directly deal with their questions.

Longman rightly notes that an obstacle for Christians in reading the Old Testament is the translation they read. His conclusions however present problems for the expository preacher. He laments:

The literal, stilted, and sometimes archaic language which is used in the majority of English translations does not reflect the literary power of the original Hebrew stories and poems. The false notion that literal is more accurate, or that religious language must sound like Shakespearean English, has led to the production of English Bibles that are tedious to read (19).

He seems to assess blame toward literal translations for hindering "sustained reading of large portions of Scripture" (19). What is puzzling is when he notes the first principle for successful interpretation is to "discover the author's intended meaning" (23), how does he expect a layman to discover this when he disparages literal translations'? He falsely (and possibly unintentionally) equates accuracy with language that is Shakespearean and `high' in nature --- an unnecessary connection. If Longman truly desires for the preacher and interpreter to know the intended meaning of the author, then he should remain consistent in this mindset by advocating, not disparaging, literal translations.

How Longman concludes Chapter 1 presents another weakness. In his ninth principle of interpretation, he exhorts the interpreter to "be open-minded and tolerant of other interpretations" (53). While in this postmodern age where truth and meaning are deemed relative to the individual, he then asks a bevy of rhetorical questions which, within the context of this section, he seems to categorize as teachings with "fuzzy edges [on] what the Bible leaves unclear" (54). These rhetorical questions address the creation account, the historicity of Jonah, the conditions of divorce, glossolalia, ordination of women into the ministry --- among others. He notes that while we must study them and adopt positions, "we must acknowledge that God in his wisdom has not made the answers clear in his Word [as well as] embrace those with whom we disagree and carry on our discussions with them in the rich love of Christian fellowship" (54). Longman draws a rather disturbing line, for some who question the historicity of Jonah, given that Christ testified of his historical presence would have trouble fellowshipping with someone who denied the clear Word of God in general and Jesus' account specifically. The same could be said of ordination of women into the ministry. Longman would have made his case quite well had he not included those rhetorical questions. Expositional preachers would and should take issue with anyone who questions the veracity of Scripture.


While this book brings a helpful contribution to the study of literary forms and excels in confronting faulty notions concerning biblical interpretation, as a pastor I would hesitate giving this book to a novice studying Old Testament literary forms. Longman gives too much ground and validity to his critics. This would result many beginning students in our churches to stumble in their understanding and trust of Old Testament Scripture. While the pastor and seminarian would be discerning enough to spot these problems, Longman misses the mark with his aim to the average Christian.
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