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The Longer Long Tail: How Endless Choice is Creating Unlimited Demand Paperback – 2 Jul 2009
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"The Long Tail has helped to reinterpret our world" (The Times)
"A smart, timely and oddly inspiring book" (Time Out)
"Snappily argued and thought-provoking" (New Yorker)
The new economics of culture and commerceSee all Product description
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Top customer reviews
Chris Anderson writes with great authority - as you would expect from the editor-in-chief of wired - and quickly engages the reader with his observations and analysis of online retailing and its comparisons with the physical world. He quickly explains the concepts of the 'long tail' economics before delving into some typical examples, many of which are drawn from the music and entertainment industries, although Amazon features prominately as one would expect.
We're treated to a short history of the The Long Tail, before moving on to the new markets being created by the online 'aggregators'. With so much choice online, Chris explains the growing importance of those products and services who help us select and filter - a new breed of digerati arising from the blogosphere!
Overall, an excellent read that will get you thinking. You'll probably find yourself going back over several chapters to put them into context, as some of the arguments are quite subtle. A great observation of online culture. Will iTunes really kill the radio star? The world is changing - find out why.
Others have their own reasons for quite properly praising Chris Anderson's book. Here are a few of mine. First, when analyzing an especially complicated subject - what he characterizes as "a market of multitudes" - he expresses his insights with exceptional brevity and clarity. For example, consider this sequence: "Increasingly, the mass market is turning into a mass of niches...The new niche market is not replacing the traditional market of hits, just sharing the stage with it for the first time...Think of [falling distribution costs] as a dropping waterline or receding tide. As they fall, they reveal a new land that has been there all along, just underwater. These niches are a great uncharted expanse of products that were previously uneconomic to offer."
I also appreciate the meticulous care with which - throughout the narrative - he examines relationships between and among "the three forces of the Long Tail": democratizing the tools of production, cutting the costs of consumption by democratizing distribution, and connecting supply and demand "by introducing consumers to [new and newly available goods] in terms of new producers (Chapter 5), new markets (Chapter 6), and new tastemakers (Chapter 7). "Think of these three forces as representing a new set of opportunities in the emerging Long Tail marketplace."
As do many other authors of business books, Anderson also includes mini-case studies to illustrate his key points. In Chapter 13, he examines five examples (i.e. eBay, KitchenAid, LEGO, Salesforce.com, and Google) of the Long Tail wagging outside of media and entertainment. Anderson's mastery of concision is again evident in Chapter 14 when he reveals the "secret" to creating a "consumer paradise": make everything available and readily accessible, and, help people to find it with both speed and convenience. The three forces serve as the basis of nine "Rules" that, Anderson is convinced, should guide and inform the collection of a huge variety of goods and makes them available to find, typically in a single place (i.e. "the infinite aisle"). These "business aggregators, include Amazon, eBay, iTunes, iFilm, Google, Craigslist, Wikipedia, MySpace, and Bloglines.
Opinions vary as to what the "secret of success" in business will be in years to come. Credit Chris Anderson for a brilliant achievement as he explains why he believes the future of business is "selling less of more." Others advocate selling more of less (i.e. a limited selection of superior products) and for some companies, that model may be appropriate. At a time when change seems to be the only constant, I am reluctant to predict anything as I await developments. Those who share my high regard for this volume are urged to check out Richard Ogle's Smart World: Breakthrough Creativity and the New Science of Ideas, Seeing What's Next: Using Theories of Innovation to Predict Industry Change co-authored by Clayton M. Christensen, Scott D. Anthony, and Erik A. Roth, Scott A. Shane's Finding Fertile Ground: Identifying Extraordinary Opportunities for New Ventures, Frans Johansson's Medici Effect: What Elephants and Epidemics Can Teach Us About Innovation, Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make Competition Irrelevant co-authored by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne.
In the October 2004 issue of Wired magazine, Chris Anderson published an article in which he shared these observations: "(1) the tail of available variety is far longer than we realize; (2) it's now within reach economically; (3) all those niches, when aggregated, can make up a significant market - seemed indisputable, especially backed up with heretofore unseen data." That is even truer today than it was when The Long Tail was first published years ago. The era that Anderson characterizes as "a market of multitudes" continues to grow in terms of both its nature and extent. In this book, Anderson takes his reader on a guided tour of this market as he explains what the probable impact the new market will have and what will be required to prosper in it.
According to Anderson, those who read the article saw the Long Tail everywhere, from politics to public relations, and from sheet music to college sports. "What people intuitively grasped was that new efficiencies in distribution, manufacturing, and marketing were changing the definition of what was commercially viable across the board. The best way to describe these forces is that they are turning unprofitable customers, products, and markets into profitable ones." Therefore, the story of the Long Tail is really about the economics of abundance: "what happens when the bottlenecks that stand between supply and demand in our culture start to disappear and everything becomes available to everyone."
If I understand Anderson's most important points (and I may not), they include these:
1. Make as much as possible available to as many people as possible.
2. Help them to locate what they need, quickly and easily.
3. Offer maximum inventory only online.
4. Customize supply chain in terms of niche markets
5. Maximize its efficiencies and economies (especially inventory control, order processing, and distribution,)
5. Be customer-driven in terms of "crowdsourcing"
6. Have strategy that separates content into its component parts (i.e. "microchunking")
7. Have a pricing strategy that is "elastic" (i.e. based on the ROI of fulfillment per product per niche).
8. Have an open source business model for information sharing.
9. In markets where scarcity exists, "guesstimate" costs, margins, sales, profits, etc.
10.Where there is abundant competition, let those markets "sort it all out."
These and other points can guide and inform decision makers as they struggle to compete profitably during the era of "long-tailed distributions," when culture is unfiltered by economic scarcity and high technology is turning mass markets into millions of niches. Anderson provides invaluable advice with regard to how minimize the cost of reaching, penetrating, and then developing a multiple of niche markets. The paradigm has shifted from selling more in fewer markets to selling less in more markets but also, key point, selling as much as possible within as many segments as possible -- and prudent -- within those markets.
With regard to the new chapter, Anderson devotes much of his attention to online marketing and suggests that critical issues to address include these:
Who's influential "in our space (and how we know)"
Who/what influences them
How to get Digged
Using beta-test invite lists
The art of begging for links
"Link bait" (e.g. stunts, contests, gimmicks, memes)
How to view the Web? "Forget it as a marketplace of products, and instead think of it as a marketplace of opinion. It's the great leveler of marketing. It allows for niche products to get global attention. Most products will be sold offline, as they always were. But in years to come, more and more products will be marketed online, taking advantage of Web methods to fine-slice consumer groups and influence word of mouth more effectively than ever before in history. Not all industries lend themselves to an infinite variety of products, but all industries have an infinite variety of customers. Finally we can treat them like the individuals they are. It's the sunset of the thirty-second spot."
There are several reasons why Anderson believed there is a need for a revised and updated edition. Here are two. Because the earlier version became a bestseller, it attracted lots of attention, generating an abundance of discussion of his core concepts. Also, the process of adopting his ideas (many of which at first seemed counterintuitive, if not precious and naive) was complicated by the globalization of culture. Focus shifted to distributed audiences around the world. Anderson was asked for additional examples of Long Tail effects outside the digital realms of media and entertainment. He certainly could not cover all of the extensions in fashion, travel, organic and "artisanal" food, and even alcohol as indicated by -- to cite one example -- Anheuser-Busch's embrace of niche beers, the establishment of Long Tail Libations, and the increased number of beers from 26 brands in 1997 to 80 in 2007. Given the fact that change continues to be the only constant in the global business world, think of this revised and updated edition as only the latest update on some Long Tail developments thus far.
Presumably the tail will continue to lengthen in months and years to come.