Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century Paperback – 18 Sep 2000
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Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner has been acclaimed as the most influential educational theorist since John Dewey. His ideas about intelligence and creativity - explicated in such bestselling books as Frames of Mind and Multiple Intelligences (over 200,000 copies in print combined) - have revolutionized our thinking. In his groundbreaking 1983 book Frames of Mind, Howard Gardner first introduced the theory of multiple intelligences, which posits that intelligence is more than a single property of the human mind. That theory has become widely accepted as one of the seminal ideas of the twentieth century and continues to attract attention all over the world. Now in Intelligence Reframed, Gardner provides a much-needed report on the theory, its evolution and revisions. He offers practical guidance on the educational uses of the theory and responds to the critiques leveled against him. He also introduces two new intelligences (existential intelligence and naturalist intelligence) and argues that the concept of intelligence should be broadened, but not so absurdly that it includes every human virtue and value.Ultimately, argues Gardner, possessing a basic set of seven or eight intelligences is not only a unique trademark of the human species, but also perhaps even a working definition of the species. Gardner also offers provocative ideas about creativity, leadership, and moral excellence, and speculates about the relationship between multiple intelligences and the world of work in the future.
About the Author
Howard Gardner is the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor in Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Among numerous honours, Gardner received a MacArthur Prize Fellowship in 1981. In 1990, he was the first American to receive the University of Louisville's Grawemeyer Award in education. In 2000, he was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship. He lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
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After describing the traditional view of intelligence in Chapter 2, he next considers several "new candidate intelligences" (naturalist, spiritual, existential, and moral). In the remaining chapters, he addresses questions and criticisms about his theory; dispels some of the more prominent myths; explores the relationships among intelligence, creativity, and leadership; suggests how his theory can be applied; discusses the theory in scholastic settings, then in"the wider world"; and then in the final chapter, explores in greater depth (returning to issues raised in Chapter 1) "my answer to the provocative question, "Who owns intelligence?'"
Gardner "reframes" our understanding of human intelligence by increasing the number and nature of our perspectives on it. That is to say, he creates a wider, deeper, and more diverse frame-of-reference in which certain conclusions which, for many apparently, are controversial. For example, "the saga of individual consciousness cannot be reduced to formulas or generalizations." Moreover, "no two selves, no two consciousnesses, no two minds are exactly alike." Therefore, "Each of is...is situated to make a unique contribution to the world." The challenge for the human race is to discover "our deepest common tie -- that we are all joint products of natural and cultural evolution."
I am reminded of what Walt Whitman once said: "Do I contradict myself? Very well, then, I contradict myself. I am large. I contain multitudes." Gardner seems to be suggesting that, if each human being contains "multitudes," it is imperative that we cherish as well as recognize such diversity and complexity. Only then can we "in a complementary but synergistic way" ensure "that Nature and Culture survive for future generations." For all of us, Gardner's theory has profound implications. It also suggests substantial benefits if we apply this theory within and throughout what is sometimes referred to as "The Family of Man."