History of Sikh Gurus Retold 1606-1708 C.E. Hardcover – 1 Dec 2007
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GURU HARGOBIND was born to Guru Arjan Dev on 7.6.1595 at Vadali, near Amritsar. He was married 3 times and had 5 sons and 1 daughter. 4 of his sons passed away and his 5th son - Guru Tegh Bahadur became 9th Guru in 1664. Guru Arjan Dev had nominated Guru Hargobind his successor on 25.5.1606. Guru Hargobind wore 2 swords, hanging from his left and right side. He enrolled weapons, horses and Saint soldiers. He built a wall around Amritsar and Lohgarh Fort in it. He hoisted a saffron flag in front of Sri Akal Takht (the throne), which was constructed in June 1606. The Emperor Janhangir imprisoned the Guru at Gwalior Fort between 1609 - 1612. After this, the Guru did his preaching tours. The Guru then constructed the city of Hargobindpur, with walls around the city. Jahangir died in 1627 and Shah Jahan took over in 1628, which lead to battle of Amritsar in 1634 and Kartarpur in 1635. The Guru moved to Kiratpur for 9 years. By 1644, he appointed his grandson Hari Rai as the 7th Guru. Guru Hargobind passed away on 3.3.1644.
GURU HARI RAI was born on 30.1.1630 at Kiratpur. He had married Sulakhni Kaur. He carried out his religious tours. He named his 2nd son Harkrishan as his successor and passed away on 6.10.1661, after covering himself with white sheet. He was cremated on the bank of Sutlej near Kiratpur, where his father and grandfather had been cremated.
GURU HARKRISHAN succeeded on 23.9.1661, when he was just 5 years old (born in 1656). He was ofcourse challenged by his older brother who wanted to be Guru. The Young-Child Guru got copies of 'Adi Granth' and autographed some of them (one copy is still preserved in Sri Takht Patna Sahib). In 1664, Emperor Aurangzeb summoned the Guru to Delhi. The Guru attended the sick with cholera and smallpox. He contacted high fever and smallpox and passed away on 30.3.1664, on the bank of Jamuna. The Guru had nominated Guru Tegh Bahadur as his successor, and the 9th Guru.
GURU TEGH BAHADUR (Tyag Mal) 5th son of Guru Hargobind, was born on 1.4.1621 in Amritsar. His mother was Nanaki. He had married Gujri. On 26.4.1635, he had fought the Moghuls alongside his father - who changed his name from Tyag Mal to Tagh Bahadur (hero of the sword). Between 1644 and 1664 (20 years), he lived at Bakala. On 21.8.1664, his succession as completed, in Mata Sulakhni's presence, mother of Guru Harkrishan. In August 1665, the Guru left Chak Nanaki (Anandpur) to tour the East. But he Guru was arrested by Aurangzeb and then released on 13.12.1665, from Delhi. He passed through Patna in May 1666. Leaving Mata Gujri here, he went to Dacca. here, on 26.12.1666, he heard the birth of his son -Gobind Rai, in Patna. After tours to the West, the Guru returned in 1675. When the Guru knew that he was going to be arrested again, he passed the Guruship to his only son on 8.7.1675. Guru Tegh Bahadur was arrested on 12.7.1675 and imprisoned in Sirhind Fort, and then taken to Delhi in iron cage. He was tortured, beheaded and executed on 11.11.1675. The young Guru cremated his father's head on 16.11.1675. And later, the headless body was also recovered and cremated. Guru Tegh Bahadur had composed 116 hymns which form the concluding portion of Guru Granth Sahib.
GURU GOBIND SINGH was born on 22.12.1666 at Patna. As a child he would rehearse the role of his grandfather - Guru Hargobind, challenging the Moghuls. Aged 9, Gobind Rai was appointed the 10th Guru by his father on 8.7.1675. He studied Persian, Sanskrit, Punjabi, Hindi and Arabic. He raised an army with elephants and horses at Anandpur. Between 1686 and 1688, he was a prolific writer. Apart from military organisation, the young Guru did a lot of missionary work. He built few forts in 1699 and the fort of Anandgarh still exists today. Mata Sundari (Mata Sunder Kaur) had married Guru Gobind Singh at Anandpur on 4.4.1684. Guru Gobind had 4 sons. On 29.3.1699, 5 devoted spirits (Panj Piara) were formed. They were the nucleus of the 'Order of Khalsa', the males were called 'Singh' and the females -'Kaur'. Battles were fought. In 1704, Guru's older sons - Ajit Singh (17) and Jujhar Singh (15) fell to the enemy at Anandpur (Chamkaur). On 12.12.1705, Guru's younger sons - Zorawar Singh (9) and Fateh Singh (7) were bricked alive in a wall at Sirhind. Their bodies were later cremated. 80 year old Mata Gujri, their grandmother passed away, hearing this bad news, in a cold tower where she had been imprisoned. Mata Sundari was moved to Delhi where she died in 1747. The 'Adi Granth' was refreshed by the Guru. As the Guru Gobind Singh dictated, it was recorded. In 1706, Aurangzeb as nearly 91 and his health failing. After his death, Bahadur Shah became the Emperor. At Nander, while the Guru was having a nap, Pathan Jamshed Khan crept near and stabbed the Guru on his left chest below the heart. On Thursday 7.10.1708, the Guru passed away.
GURU GRANTH SAHIB - on Wednesday the 6.10.1708, Guru Gobind Singh commanded that the Granth Sahib (holy book) will be the next Guru. The 'Guru Spirit' will be in 'Granth Sahib' and the body in the 'Panth' (5 Sikh Khalsa). There will be no human successor to the Gurus. Guru Granth Sahib will be the 'Guru Eternal' - the Spirit of 10 Gurus. The 'Gurbani' is the word revealed by God direct to the Gurus, who made it known to the people. Most of the language is Punjabi (Gurmukhi) in poetic words.