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German: Biography of a Language Hardcover – 15 Jul 2010
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German provides an apt starting point for anybody seeking an accessible book on the history of German (Kerstin Hodge, Times Literary Supplement)
Like a good biography, it provides a tantalising taste of its subject. (Kerstin Hodge, Times Higher Education Supplement)
For any scholar of linguistics, this book offers rich material. (Organiser, New Delhi)
an ingenious telling of just how German emerged from the primordial Germanic soup...this is an enjoyable yet still-scholarly read for the historian, linguist and Germanophile alike. It would be a fine thing to have more such brief histories, made easily readable to the non-specialist, of the major world languages. (The Economist)
About the Author
Ruth H. Sanders is Professor of German at Miami University of Ohio.
Top Customer Reviews
I had thought, judging from the title and cover, that this book would be more than the half-hearted philological text-book in disguise that it is. It has been sexed-up, but remove the superficial make-up and there is little beneath to separate this book from an amateur thesis. Bracketed references occur annoyingly throughout the text often set against simple already well-known facts.
For a book that discusses boundaries and geographical language and people shifts, there are no helpful visual aids; no maps or diagrams - instead we have tables set at a 90 degree orientation to the book and for some reason each chapter fizzles out into a time-line which includes irrelevant details about, for instance, Galileo etc.
Will someone please write the fabulous book this should be - I would love to read it!
Most Helpful Customer Reviews on Amazon.com (beta)
The giveaway is the endless repetition. Why do we need to be told THREE TIMES that Martin Luther posted his 95 theses on the church door at Wittenberg in 1517 and that this was a seminal event in the beginning of the Reformation? Why do we need to be told TWICE that in Wittenberg alone, 100,000 copies of Luther's translation of the Bible were printed during Luther's lifetime? Why do we need to be told THREE TIMES that the 30 Years War devastated the German countryside and made life miserable for the peasant population? And those examples are just from one chapter; they are representative of an endemic problem.
Then there are the issues of the content itself, which the previous two reviewers have discussed. It seems to me that in a book purporting to be the biography of a language, it would have been useful to include more examples of that language as it evolved than this book has. It certainly would have been more relevant than the mini-biography of Luther's wife or the details of exactly when the major Lutheran church bodies in the United States got around to disassociating themselves from Luther's excoriation of the Jews. The author tells us, several times, that High German is so called because it developed in mountainous southern Germany and Low German because it prevailed in the lowlands of the north - yet gives just a single, one-word example of the sound shift that distinguishes the two languages. The author talks about how Luther in his Bible translation combined his local dialect with chancellery German, but gives not a single example that illustrates this.
A good editor would have caught these things. This book clearly did not have one, or perhaps it had one but the author was not willing to accept the editor's advice.
I give it three stars because amid all the chaff, there is some wheat, especially for someone like myself who is trying to relearn German a half century after studying it in school and who is curious about the history of the language. But the book could have been, and should have been, so much better.
Page 42: The Septuagint is the Greek Old Testament, not the Greek New Testament. Page 155: It is certainly NOT true that 14,000 Germans migrated to North America in 1709. About that many did come down the Rhine and were taken across to Britain, but fewer than 3000 were sent on to New York and fewer than 1000 to North Carolina. The remainder stayed in England or were transported to Ireland. (A. B. Faust, The German Element in the United States, p. 80.)Page 158: Napoleon did NOT die in 1815. He was taken into exile in 1815 and died in 1821. Page 212: 92 per cent of the Germans most certainly did NOT vote for the Nazis in 1933. According to Hajo Holborn's A History of Modern Germany (vol. 3, pages 701 & 725) in the last fully free German election in November, 1932 the Nazis got 33.1% of the popular vote. Even with the Nazis attempting to suppress the campaigning of other parties before the election of March 5, 1933, the last even partially free election in pre-war Germany, the Nazis received only 43.9% of the popular vote. Page 161: It is unlikely that the Forty-Eighter immigration to America had much to do with today's "red state-blue state" divide despite the concentration of people of German heritage in the American Midwest. The political immigration from Germany in the years after the Revolution of 1848 was numerically overwhelmed by as much as 20 to 1 by the concurrent influx of apolitical or quite conservative Lutheran and Catholic German peasants.
This book is another appalling example of a major and respected publisher of non-fiction failing to do any simple fact-checking before publishing a supposedly non-fiction book. (for another example, see mine and the other reviews of John Keegan's The American Civil War: A Military History.) How are we now to trust what we read in new books unless we ourselves already know well the subject matter of the book so that we can spot the obvious errors?
The best way to give an idea of what it covers is to list its chapter and sub-chapter names:
Ch. 1: Germanic Beginnings:
Indo-European Proto-Language and culture...Agriculture comes to the Germanic homeland...A Proto-Germanic language emerges...The Germanic sound shift...Substrate hypothesis...Uralic influence?...Language prestige
Ch. 2: The Germanic Languages Survive the Romans:
The Battle of Kalkriese, 9 AD...Why did Arminius ambush the Roman legions?...The linguistic consequences...The Germanic tribes: From clans to warbands to tribes...The Celts...The Germanen go to Britain: The Anglo-Saxons and the English language...The Germanic 'Volkerwanderung', 375-568 AD...The Goths and the Gothic language...The Vikings: Raiders, traders, neighbors...The end of the Western Roman Empire...The Germanen under Roman rule...The religion of the Germanen...The Germanen overwhelm the Empire...The Germanic languages, ca. 800 AD...Roman views of the Germanen...Germanic life and society...Germania and the Roman Empire
Ch. 3: A Fork in the Road:
600 AD: Idorih...The second sound shift...Theodiscus, Diutisk, Deutsch: German takes a name...Life in the Early Middle Ages...Eighth century Germanic languages...Old High German, 750-1150... Yiddish: A new branch of High German...How the days of the week got their German names...The early influence of Latin...What causes sound shift?...Substrate hypothesis, again
Ch. 4: Bible German and the Birth of a Standard Language:
1522: September Testament...The history of European printing...Readers...Martin Luther...Life in the Sixteenth Century...The Reformation...Social control...Finding a language fit for the Bible...Loosening the ties to Rome...Other German Bibles...Translation as an art...Latin: The beginning of the end
Ch. 5:The German Language Gets a State:
1871: High German follows the Empire...Setting the stage: The German Confederation, 1815-1871...Language and state...Pronunciation...The language of bureaucracy...Linguistic nationalism...German as a literary language...Intellectual life in the Nineteenth Century...Social democracy and the 'Kulturkampf'...Daily life in the German Reich...Germany and Europe
Ch. 6: Postwar Comeback Times Two: A High Point, a Double Fall from Grace, and Recoveries:
A "German epidemic" conquers America...The 'Dichter und Denker' go to war...German cultural capital declines...Nazism and the German language...German revives at home...The German Democratic Republic, 1949-1989...Tendencies in contemporary German...German at home: Four national standards...German as an international language...Language contact and language change: The case of Finnish...Early Germanic languages in a Deep Freeze: The case of Icelandic
Finally, at the end of each chapter is a timeline of events in German-speaking Europe and outside it, corresponding to the chapter's linguistic era. Again I found that these timelines did a nice job of providing context. The book is short (215 pages + 10 page bibliography + 15 page index) and is written in an easy-to-read style.
On the other hand the last chapter discussing the 20th century is hopelessly "politically correct" and correctly summed up in the introduction as "the beginning of a postwar recovery of the moral and cultural capital of the German language which had been squandered in the brutal deeds of two world wars instigated by Germany". Need I remind the author that Germany did not "instigate" the first world war. To quote the wonderfully pithy "Horrible Histories" -- the first world war started "because an Austrian has been shot in Bosnia by a Serb". Even aside from the military expressions that developed in the language during the 20th century, there are contributions of the German speaking people in technology and politics which are completely ignored. Having a longer description of the different dialects and how they developed and defer would have been very interesting.
So I'd describe it as good attempt, but with flawed execution.
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