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Film History: An Introduction [Paperback]

Kristin Thompson , David Bordwell
4.6 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (16 customer reviews)

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Table of Contents

Preface
Introduction: Film History and How It Is Done

Part ONE: EARLY CINEMA
1 THE INVENTION AND EARLY YEARS OF THE CINEMA, 1880s-1904
The Invention of the Cinema

Preconditions for Motion Pictures

Major Precursors of Motion Pictures

An International Process of Invention
Early Filmmaking and Exhibition

Scenics, Topicals, and Fiction Films

Creating an Appealing Program

The Growth of the French Film Industry

England and the "Brighton School"

The United States: Competition and the Resurgence of Edison
Notes and Queries

Identification and Preservation of Early Films

Reviving Interest in Early Cinema: The Brighton Conference
References
Further Reading
2 THE INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION OF THE CINEMA, 1905-1912
Film Production in Europe

France: Pathé versus Gaumont

Italy: Growth through Spectacle

Denmark: Nordisk and Ole Olsen

Other Countries
The Struggle for the Expanding American Film Industry

The Nickeodeon Boom

The Motion Picture Patents Company versus the Independents

Social Pressures and Self-Censorship

The Rise of the Feature Film

The Star System

The Movies Move to Hollywood
The Problem of Narrative Clarity

Early Moves toward Classical Storytelling

Intertitles

Camera Position and Acting

Color

Set Design and Lighting

The Beginnings of the Continuity System

An International Style
Notes and Queries

Griffith's Importance in the Development of Film Style
References
Further Reading
3 NATIONAL CINEMA, HOLLYWOOD CLASSICISM, AND WORLD WAR I, 1905-1919
The American Takeover of World Markets
The Rise of National Cinemas

Germany

Italy

Russia

France

Denmark

Sweden
The Classical Hollywood Cinema

The Major Studios Begin to Form

Controlling Filmmaking

Filmmaking in Hollywood during the 1910s

Films and Filmmakers

Streamlining American Animation
Small Producing Countries
Notes and Queries

The Ongoing Rediscovery of the 1910s
Further Reading

Part TWO: THE LATE SILENT ERA, 1919-1929
4 FRANCE IN THE 1920S
The French Film Industry after World War I

Competition from Imports

Disunity within the Film Industry

Outdated Production Facilities
Major Postwar Genres
The French Impressionist Movement

The Impressionists' Relation to the Industry

Impressionist Theory

Formal Traits of Impressionism
The End of French Impressionism

The Filmmakers Go Their Own Ways

Problems within the Film Industry
Notes and Queries

French Impressionist Theory and Criticism

Restoration Work on Napoléon
References
Further Reading
5 GERMANY IN THE 1920s
The German Situation after World War I
Genres and Styles of German Postwar Cinema

Spectacles

The German Expressionist Movement

Kammerspiel

German Films Abroad
Major Changes in the Mid- to Late 1920s

The Technological Updating of the German Studios

The End of Inflation
The End of the Expressionist Movement
New Objectivity
Export and Classical Style
Notes and Queries

German Cinema and German Society

Expressionism, New Objectivity, and the Other Arts
References
Further Reading
6 SOVIET CINEMA IN THE 1920s
The Hardships of War Communism, 1918-1920
Recovery under the New Economic Policy, 1921-1924
Increased State Control and the Montage Movement, 1925-1930

Growth and Export in the Film Industry

The Influence of Constructivism

A New Generation: The Montage Filmmakers

The Theoretical Writings of Montage Filmmakers

Soviet Montage Form and Style
Other Soviet Films
The Five-Year Plan and the End of the Montage Movement
Notes and Queries

Film Industry and Governmental Policy: A Tangled History

The Kuleshov Effect

The Russian Formalists and the Cinema
References
Further Reading
7 THE LATE SILENT ERA IN HOLLYWOOD, 1920-1928
Theater Chains and the Structure of the Industry

Vertical Integration

Picture Palaces

The Big Three and the Little Five
The Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America
Studio Filmmaking

Style and Technological Changes

Big-Budget Films of the 1920s

New Investments and Blockbusters

Genres and Directors

Foreign Filmmakers in Hollywood
Films for African-American Audiences
The Animated
Part of the Program
Notes and Queries

The Rediscovery of Buster Keaton
References
Further Reading
8 INTERNATIONAL TRENDS OF THE 1920s
"Film Europe"

Concrete Steps toward Co-operation

Success Cut Short
The "International Style"

Carl Dreyer: European Director
Film Experiments Outside the Mainstream Industry
Documentary Features Gain Prominence
Commercial Filmmaking Internationally

Japan

Great Britain

Italy

Some Small Producing Countries
Notes and Queries

Different Versions of Silent Classics
References
Further Reading

Part THREE: THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOUND CINEMA, 1926-1945
9 THE INTRODUCTION OF SOUND
Sound in the United States

Warner Bros. and Vitaphone

Sound-on-Film Is Adopted

Sound and Filmmaking
Germany Challenges Hollywood

Dividing the International Pie

The Early Sound Era in Germany
The USSR Pursues Its Own Path to Sound
The International Adoption of Sound

France

Great Britain

Japan

Wiring the World's Theaters for Sound

Crossing the Language Barrier
Notes and Queries

Filmmakers on the Coming of Sound

Sound and the Revision of Film History
References
Further Reading
10 THE HOLLYWOOD STUDIO SYSTEM, 1930-1945
The New Structure of the Film Industry

The Big Five

The Little Three

The Independents
Exhibition Practice in the 1930s
Continued Innovation in Hollywood

Sound Recording

Camera Movement

Technicolor

Special Effects

Cinematography Styles
Major Directors

The Older Generation

New Directors

Émigré Directors
Genre Innovations and Transformations

The Musical

The Screwball Comedy

The Horror Film

The Social Problem Film

The Gangster Film

Film Noir

The War Film
Animation and the Studio System
Notes and Queries

The Controversy over Orson Welles
References
Further Reading
11 OTHER STUDIO SYSTEMS
Quota Quickies and Wartime Pressures: The British Studios

The British Film Industry Grows

Export Successes

Alfred Hitchcock's Thrillers

Crisis and Recovery

The Effects of the War
Innovation within an Industry: The Studio System of Japan

Popular Cinema of the 1930s

The Pacific War
India: An Industry Built on Music

A Highly Fragmented Business

Mythologicals, Socials, Devotionals

Independents Weaken the System
China: Filmmaking Caught between Left and Right
Notes and Queries

Japanese Cinema Rediscovered
References
Further Reading
12 Cinema and the State: The USSR, Germany, and Italy, 1930-1945
The Soviet Union: Socialist Realism and World War II

Films of the Early 1930s

The Doctrine of Socialist Realism

The Main Genres of Socialist Realism

The Soviet Cinema in Wartime
The German Cinema under the Nazis

The Nazi Regime and the Film Industry

Films of the Nazi Era

The Aftermath of the Nazi Cinema
Italy: Propaganda versus Entertainment

Industry Tendencies

A Cinema of Distraction

A New Realism?
Notes and Queries

The Case of Leni Riefenstahl
References
Further Reading
13 FRANCE: POETIC REALISM, THE POPULAR FRONT AND THE OCCUPATION, 1930-1945
The Industry and Filmmaking during the 1930s

Production Problems and Artistic Freedom

Quality Studio Filmmaking

Émigrés in France

Everyday Realism
Poetic Realism

Doomed Lovers, Atmospheric Settings

The Creative Burst of Jean Renoir
Brief Interlude: The Popular Front
Filmmaking in Occupied and Vichy France

The Situation of the Film Industry

Films of the Occupation Period
Notes and Queries

Renewed Interest in the Popular Front
Reference
Further Reading
14 LEFTIST, DOCUMENTARY, AND EXPERIMENTAL CINEMA, 1930-1945
The Spread of Political Cinema

The United States

Germany

Belgium and the Netherlands

Great Britain

International Leftist Filmmaking in the Late 1930s
Government- and Corporate-sponsored Documentaries

The United States

Great Britain
Wartime Documentaries

Hollywood Directors and the War

Great Britain

Germany and the USSR

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