- Hardcover: 672 pages
- Publisher: HarperCollins; First Edition edition (21 Feb. 2005)
- Language: English
- ISBN-10: 0007118708
- ISBN-13: 978-0007118700
- Product Dimensions: 23.4 x 16.2 x 4.8 cm
- Average Customer Review: 4.1 out of 5 stars See all reviews (30 customer reviews)
- Amazon Bestsellers Rank: 294,626 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
Empires of the Word: A Language History of the World Hardcover – 21 Feb 2005
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‘Delicious! Few books on language answer the questions that people actually ask linguists, such as why some languages are spoken by millions and others by just a few hundred. Ostler's book shows how certain lucky languages joined humankind in its spread across the world, many off them eventually vanishing without a trace, and one of them – guess which? – currently ruling the planet.’ – John McWhorter, author of THE POWER OF BABEL: THE NATURAL HISTORY OF LANGUAGE
From the Author
When did you first become interested in languages?
The first time I can remember being really interested in languages was reading war comics, when I was a little boy. A German would be involved in some nefarious deed and would say, Achtung, Engländer, Engländer and then they would continue their remarks in English, which I always found rather disappointing. I really wanted to know how they would have gone on in German. So I pestered my mother to get me something on German. And she did and I got Teach Yourself German and this was to some extent against the better judgement, as it appeared, of my school at the time who thought that doing Latin and French with Greek coming on would be quite enough for a young lad. I didnt agree and neither did my mother fortunately. As it turned out, she then found me a German teacher who was a Russian emigrant lady, so after wed had a few weeks on German she said, Why dont you do some Russian as well? I thought thats great.
This was all when I was, I suppose, eleven or twelve, and although Ive always enjoyed the variety of languages I did have a bit of a problem in those days. Back then, languages were definitely viewed as being on the humanities side of things. That meant you were supposed to be very keen on creative literature, which went naturally with English, and by and large I wasnt. So there was a slight conflict there. I really loved the nuts and bolts of the languages but at the time I wasnt that concerned about their literatures. Its something I still find now, not so much from a grammatical point of view, but more from the body of culture that goes along with a language. It often makes it quite difficult to distinguish what I am trying to do from simply talking about the literary history of a language which is quite a different thing but I think it an important difference and one that I do try to maintain.
Empires of the Word, it seems to me, consistently gives what you call the self-indulgently tough-minded historical account of global language development a good drubbing. Were you, at least in part, motivated to write the book to refute a view that many still pay lip service to?
Well, no, the real motivation for writing the book was almost like the Thousand and One Nights. I realized after Id given a lecture on the history of languages and how it might be a precursor for their future, that there were all these stories there that, by and large, linguists knew and sometimes put at the beginning of their grammars, but which were not known to the vast educated public. I thought there was scope for telling them those stories.
Having said that, I have been working as a linguist in various ways all my life and there had been a certain degree of frustration which had built up from being within the community of the number one multinational lingua franca of our day, namely English. Certain things do grate. Like this whole idea that everybody speaks English, dont they? And also that languages and what comes along with them are, essentially, dispensable because languages are just about communication. That is the fundamental view within the English-speaking world, and its one that tends to build up in large dominant language communities. You could say a similar thing happened in the Roman Empire and during the years of the Roman Catholic Churchs dominance after the fall of the Empire. So a wish to refute that unexamined dogma was certainly in the back of my mind and does come out in the book. There is plenty of evidence that you miss a lot if you accept that kind of dogma.
Towards the end of the book, you describe the distinctive traits of different languages; you write about Arabics austere grandeur and egalitarianism, Latins civic sense etc., etc. An admiration for Sanskrit is palpable, but did you ever feel the urge to make value judgements about one language over another?
I dont think I ever made any judgement about one language being nicer than any other or anything. I certainly felt it was rather jolly to have a second chance to go back to India. I got to do a nice long chapter on Sanskrit and then here we are again with English in India as well! I was conscious that I liked that. But its dangerous when one starts saying that some languages are better or more beautiful than others. This is obviously a risk once you start taking seriously the idea that languages have some sort of character with a human meaning.
Actually, over the last few months I have just been trying to teach myself Persian. Ive made some progress with it and now I am reading the Shahnameh in Persian. Its notable that the sort the language it is, with all the chs and shs sounds, is exactly the kind of language that J. R. R. Tolkien based his black speech on in Lord of the Rings. This, of course, is supposed to be an evil language to go with the orcs who speak it. And this is really just a failure of human imagination and understanding by Tolkien. But it is interesting that he should have had that feeling perhaps what he was really doing was identifying with all the medieval people he spent his life studying, who naturally saw Saracen as the embodiment of evil. Who knows, that may be a message deep in the Lord of the Rings, which Ill admit I enjoyed very much as a young teenager, but, as you can see, there are difficulties there.
The thing is, you really have to have sympathy for everything without condemning the things you find harder to identify with. And I am much more at ease with some of the languages than others.
Wittgenstein once referred to a language as a form of life, noting that if a lion could talk we would not be able to understand it. But as our world becomes increasingly globalized and homogenized, I wondered if you felt that our forms of life and the kinds of human experience available to us and consequently our languages will be gradually reduced in some way?
I dont think we are in danger of having a reduced experience in general but certain traditional ways of seeing the world are in danger of being lost. Others will come along and, given enough time, others will rebuild. It may be that in the short and middle term we are in danger of losing stuff. This is something that comes up in the business of language revitalization with endangered languages. Sometimes you are down to a few very old people and usually if you succeed in reviving a language in that context, its very difficult to bring back the specific sentence structure if the language that has taken over does not share the same sentence structure. There are numerous examples of this in central Africa. People go back to speaking a language but they are using the grammar of the interloper language they are trying to give up, just putting the words in.
Some linguists have remarked that in the case of modern Hebrew, it is really re-lexified Russian, because the way Hebrew is spoken now is different structurally from the way you see it in the Bible. Its very difficult to pin down what is really being lost there. One sees it when one tries to get in contact with ancient cultures; the one we most naturally try in Europe is classical Latin. You find that even if you know all the words and grasp the structure, it is often very difficult to read it easily in the way that you can read either medieval Latin or modern French.
Now some would say, Oh, its because classical Latin is very intricate and specially structured to be beautifully formulated, and so on and that Romans themselves found it hard to read. But we face the same problem even with the Roman comedies, which were intended for rapid reading. So something has changed and we no longer readily have access to it. --This text refers to the Paperback edition.
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Top Customer Reviews
I would say Empires of the Word's main strength is the fact that it focuses is on how languages change and interact with each other over the centuries. I haven't come across any other book that attempts to do this in anything like as comprehensive a way as Nicholas Ostler has here. The broad historical perspective he takes allows him to draw fascinating parallels between the ways very different languages in very different parts of the world have evolved and influenced each other.
Whilst the different sections do reference each other, it's quite possible to just read the part dealing with a particular language that you're interested in. So if you want to find out about how Spanish spread throughout South America, or how and why the Egyptians stopped speaking Egyptian and started speaking Arabic, or get a potted history of how Sanskrit has influenced Asian culture, you can just open the book at the relevant chapter and start reading. (And if the kind of topics I've just mentioned don't make you think "Ooh, that sounds interesting!" then this maybe isn't the book for you...)
Part Two: Languages by Land, looks at the Middle & Far East: Sumerian, Akkadian, Phoenician, Aramaic, Arabic, Turkish & Persian, Egyptian & Chinese whilst chapters 5 & 6 considers Sanskrit & Greek respectively. The last two chapters deal with Celtic, Latin, German & Slavic. Part Three: Languages by Sea, explores the spread of Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and the remarkable career of English. Part Four deals with the current Top 20 languages and reflects on the meaning and implications of the global survey.
The life-spans of languages differ greatly; if one compares Latin with Greek, for instance, Greek continued to thrive under Roman hegemony alongside Latin and eventually supplanted Latin again in the Byzantine Empire.Read more ›
Of course the book is also by definition a history of civilisation, focusing on prominent languages like Egyptian, Akkadian, Sanskrit, Chinese, Greek, Latin and the larger European languages. The life-spans of languages differ greatly, if one compares Latin with Greek, for instance, since Greek continued to thrive under Roman hegemony alongside Latin. It eventually supplanted Latin again in the Byzantine Empire.
Some significant civilisational languages like Latin and Sanskrit have all but died as spoken tongues, but they gave birth to rich families of related languages, whilst Old Chinese's pictographic script still serves its daughter languages very well.
A major change occurred around the 16th century when the European voyages of discovery spread the languages of Europe far and wide to the Americas, Africa and Asia. Launched by trade, these languages became tongues of empire through conquest. In that way Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and English spread around the globe.
Dutch gave rise to the vibrant Afrikaans in Southern Africa and lingers on in some form or other in Suriname and on some tiny Caribbean islands. French is in decline, having lost much prestige and many speakers the last few decades.
Ostler differentiates between languages that grew organically (like Chinese) and the aforementioned ones that grew by "merger and acquisition".Read more ›
Given the immensity of its subject, such an overview has of course to gloss over much of the detail. It is impressive that you hardly notice this; there are many detailed and useful maps, a delightful selection of literary quotations (given in original language and English translation) and, unusually for such "big idea" books, an aversion to unqualified generalisations. Moreover, in the few subjects discussed where I would consider myself to be more knowledgeable than the average educated layman I found nothing that I could disagree with or that indicated shoddy research. It would be interesting to know if linguists had a similar experience. In summary, a mind-opening book that makes one ashamed to be a monoglot!
Most Recent Customer Reviews
Nicholas Ostler has used his knowledge of dozens of languages and their historical and cultural circumstances to build a unique macrolinguistic account of humanity. Read morePublished 3 months ago by J. Caldecott
The book provides real insight into a very complex subject. It is less about giving definitive answers than about explaining why simplistic answers do not exist to the questions... Read morePublished 6 months ago by Jon Banton
Awesome! This book is really an adventure if not the greatest adventure of humanity in exploration of languages. Read morePublished 17 months ago by Zaid
I rarely give up on a book but this one has defeated me. The first chapter reads like a student exam answer - an attempt to impress the marker by cramming in as much as possible... Read morePublished 22 months ago by james