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The Discourses (Classics) Kindle Edition
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So what were Machiavelli's real positions? Many scholars believe that these are laid out in "The Discourses", a work almost unknown to the general public. Its full title is "Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livy". Using the ancient Roman Republic as his model, Machiavelli attempts to analyze the role of fortune and virtue in history, the art of war, and the best system of government. There are certain similarities between "The Discourses" and "The Prince". Both works contain their fair share of pragmatic Realpolitik. On the whole, however, "The Discourses" show Machiavelli in a much better light than "The Prince". Machiavelli actually turns out to be an advocate of a democratic republic! Indeed, since Machiavelli supported the republican side during the political conflicts in Florence, it's safe to assume that *this* is the real Machiavelli.
"The Discourses" is not a particularly systematic work. It contains no fully worked-out political theory, and suffers from bad editing. (Machiavelli even admits this in his foreword.) The most interesting part is Book One, which deals with constitutional issues. Book Two, about the expansion of the Romans, is moderately interesting, while Book Three is the most disjointed.Read more ›
His comments cover such important issues as war and peace, corruption and justice, the role of religion, the essential forms and players in the political theatre at home and abroad.
They reflect Machiavelli's pessimistic vision on mankind.
The nature of mankind
For Machiavelli, men are more prone to evil than to good. Men never do good unless necessity drives them to it. Hunger and poverty make men industrious and laws make them good. All men are ill content, for desire always exceeds the power of attainment. They are also deceitful, organize conspiracies and speak with a double tongue.
Forms of government
Machiavelli discerns three good typed of government, which, however, can easily become corrupt. Principality (Monarchy) can turn into Tyranny; Aristocracy can become Oligarchy; Democracy can break up in Anarchy.
His ideal is a blend of the three good types, like the one introduced by Lycurgus in Sparta, which lasted for 800 years.
The players at home
The core conflict in a State is the clash between those who want to keep (the haves, the upper class) and those who want to acquire (the have-nots, the plebs).
Fearing that they might loose everything, the haves in Rome granted the plebs a say in political affairs by creating the tribunate. In order to fight corruption and `malignant humours' they built a judicial network with many (not few) judges.
Rome's army was based on a mix of Roman and foreign soldiers under the helm of Roman generals.Read more ›
This volume, moreover, comes with a good, polemic introduction.
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