Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Volume 17: Development of Personality Paperback – 21 Oct 1981
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The papers included in this volume present an enlightening view of Jung himself and his many-faceted outlook on life. -- Review of Religion
The papers included in this volume present an enlightening view of Jung himself and his many-faceted outlook on life. -- "Review of Religion
"The papers included in this volume present an enlightening view of Jung himself and his many-faceted outlook on life."--Review of Religion
-The papers included in this volume present an enlightening view of Jung himself and his many-faceted outlook on life.---Review of Religion
From the Back Cover
Dr. Jung has made a unique contribution to the psychology of childhood in this collection of eight papers and has gone far in applying modern analytical concepts to educational theory and practice.
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Jung next addresses his methods and purposes behind his theory, which he says is ultimately to help people, intellectual understanding being a distant secondary motivation. As a medical doctor, this orientation stands to reason. In delivering this help, Jung mentions four methods for investigating the psyche of his patients, which are the association method (look for disturbances in the association experiment), symptom analysis (artificially reproduce memories), anamnestic analysis (historical reconstruction of neurosis) and finally, analysis of the unconscious, which is done through dream analysis. It is important to note that this is one of the greatest sources of Jung's own explanation at dream analysis as he usually differs all explanation and methods to Freud. In such an analysis, Jung does not apply a rigid system to the analysis but instead relies upon intuition, as each image and dream scenario is unique to the patient. ("To interpret dreams on the basis of a general theory, or on certain ready-made suppositions, is not merely ineffectual, but a definitely wrong and harmful practice." 163) Such a diagnosis comes directly from the patient and is not something that is prescribed.
Getting more overtly into the topic of children, Jung writes that children are extraordinarily perceptive to the subtle emotions of their parents. A parent may say that nothing is wrong, but that is in essence trying to override what is most obvious with logic. Due to this attentiveness, Jung also states that the psyche of the child will be a direct manifestation of the psyche of the parents. The child essentially learns to occupy the mental environment of the parents regardless what the parents have to say. If a parent is either absent or projects their own unfulfilled desires onto the child, it often leads to disastrous results.
Concerning education, Jung sites three kinds. The first is education through example. This can even function unconsciously as nothing needs to be said, nor does the teaching need to be intentional. Jung compares this type of learning to the ancient "participation mystique" of ritual, where participation taught un-spoken lessons. Collective education Jung states is education stemming from rules, principles and methods. This creates a social pressure to conform that guides an individual's behavior. In the case of individuals with weaker psyches, this can have disastrous results as they may identify too strongly with the external. Individual education then is more along the lines of catering each lesson to each child. I take this to mean (to a degree) that teaching should cater to each child's personality type as I just do not see any way to communicate one message meaningfully to both an INTP and an ESFJ at the same time.
Jung notes that in the education of children, adults tend to reflect upon their own failings, realizing their own failures. Instead of investing energy in correcting their own failures, they instead assume that they can correct the next generation. The reasoning makes sense, but if one has not learned the lesson, how can he/she teach it? This seems to be a tremendous problem even in our education system today. Jung sees that people tend to give up on their own development and just try to do their best for their children with flawed methods. But children are not half as stupid as we assume they are and notice all too well the real lessons that are being taught. (170) Thus, if we truly wish to change our children, we must first change ourselves. Jung writes that there is no way to explain to a child that they should develop themselves in a certain way. Instead, children develop to accommodate causal necessity. Their personalities will develop where their environment directs them.
This work is concluded with a section on marriage. Jung writes that most relationships seek competition of the shadow in a complementary fashion. People seem attracted to the elements of their psyche that remain unconscious. By thus joining with someone who compliments or completes you, the entire spectrum of the mind seems present. But when this is done, one's own shadow is often projected onto the partner, which can cause tremendous tension. This phenomenon can take a very positive orientation when the partners play the roles of container and contained. If one partner has a surplus of energy in one area and lacks the ability to focus, they can be attracted to another person who does have focus. The first partner then feels contained in a nurturing and supporting way adding stability to their psyche and to the relationship. Hopefully the individual will eventually realize that the container is not needed and they will develop their own stability, moving one step closer to individuation.
I find that the article, Analytic Psychology and Education makes for an excellent supplement to Jung's Two Essays on Analytic Psychology. I feel that Jung is much more to the point with explaining some of this theories here. Also, he gives a very forward explanation of dream interpretation which is lacking in the other book. I strongly recommend this article as an introduction to Jung.
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Here are some representative quotations from the book:
"Theories in psychology are the very devil. It is true that we need certain points of view for their orienting and heuristic velue; but they should always be regarded as mere auxiliary concepts that can be laid aside at any time." (Pg. 7)
"Freud's particular merit lies not in the actual discovery of unconscious activity, but in unveiling the real nature of this activity, and above all in working out a practical method for exploring the unconscious." (Pg. 67)
"Before Freud nothing was allowed to be sexual, now everything is nothing but sexual." (Pg. 84)
"(I)n America civic life appeals to the intelligence and expects an intelligent response, whereas in Europe it plans for stupidity." (Pg. 135)
"The Church represents a higher spiritual substitute for the purely natural, or 'carnal,' tie to the parents. Consequently it frees the individual from an unconscious natural relationship which, strictly speaking, is not a relationship at all but simply a condition of inchoate, unconscious identity." (Pg. 158)
"Moreover, there are dreams that defy every effort at interpretation. Often the only possible thing is to hazard a guess." (Pg. 163)
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