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AD 381: Heretics, Pagans and the Christian State Hardcover – 7 Feb 2008

4.2 out of 5 stars 14 customer reviews

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Product details

  • Hardcover: 272 pages
  • Publisher: Pimlico; First Edition / Fourth Impression edition (7 Feb. 2008)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1845950062
  • ISBN-13: 978-1845950064
  • Product Dimensions: 15.9 x 2.5 x 24.1 cm
  • Average Customer Review: 4.2 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (14 customer reviews)
  • Amazon Bestsellers Rank: 349,812 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)

Product Description


`The Closing of the Christian Mind' -- New Humanist

Book Description

A provoking - and timely - examination of one of the most important moments in Church history.

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Customer Reviews

4.2 out of 5 stars
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Top Customer Reviews

Format: Hardcover
This book is a phenomenon - a study of doctrinal conflict in the Christian Church of the fourth century that is written not for scholars, not for students, but for the general public. It would be easy for professionals to point out various aspects of Freeman's treatment that are insecure - the over-estimation of the novelty of the decrees of Theodosius I (379-95) against heretics and pagan practices, the claim that he prematurely suppressed the Arian debate when in fact it had already become tiresome and unproductive, the pillorying of Nicene orthodoxy as oppressive when in fact it provided what has remained the decent minimum of common Christian belief ever since, the mistake of supposing that laws against heresy and paganism necessarily implied persecution when in fact they were primarily concerned to please God, and finally the unconscious clericalism of thinking that the leading role taken by the emperor was usurpation. But if we professionals leave the writing of non-academic books on this subject to non-professionals, we have no right to complain if they don't quite say what most of us would have said (particularly since 'we' are not in uniform agreement!). Surely we should thank Freeman for airing these matters in public, and for raising a major question that historians of doctrine too often ignore: was the price of Christian orthodoxy too high? Was the greater clarity gradually obtained over the Christian doctrine of God an adequate compensation for the restrictions on the freedom of debate that developed gradually in late antiquity (rather than suddenly under Theodosius I) and have remained a reality in most of the Christian churches (in varying degrees) ever since? Is Christianity, which claims to be based not on reason but on revelation, inevitably the enemy of intellectual freedom?Read more ›
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Format: Paperback
This book is an interesting review of the situation in the reign of Theodosius, with a thesis that the council of Constantinople led to a shutting down of an age of toleration and critical thinking, ushering in the dark ages.

There is much to commend the book, and the case is well argued using suitable source material. However, to my interested layman's mind (I have read a fair bit on the history of the age), the thesis fails ultimately because of the tendency to focus too much on some specifics and to think more highly of the previous situation than is deserved. The golden age of critical thinking and toleration is asserted, but it is not at all clear that such really ever existed. Neither is it clear that the decrees of Theodosius can be blamed for closing it down.

I note the review above by Dr Richard Price, which reveals some specific issues. As this is beyond my field, I would defer to his knowledge - guardedly because we should never believe anyone just because they are an authority. But the reader of this book must ultimately decided for themselves whether the author has actually discovered something the other academics have all overlooked or whether he has perhaps overstated the case a little.

Ultimately though this is a very interesting book as a starting point of a greater debate and re-evaluation about the early church history. Why should we let the academic world have all the fun with that debate?
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Format: Paperback Verified Purchase
Excellent and well-researched book about a preiod in history that is largely ignored or forgotten. The impact on Christian Doctrine of the decisions of the Roman emperors to govern the empire is largely ignored. The decision by the emperor Theodosius in AD 381 to implement Constantine's Nicene formula of Christianity, and to call all other ideas and doctrines heresy, has had a profound and lasting effect on Christianity ever since. To be denounced as a heretic in those days carried very severe punishments, so other ideas were submerged under the emperor's edict. Heresy and orthodxy were at the mercy of imperial political decisions.

A very well-written book and accessible to the layman. A must read for the serious student of Church history.
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By Keen Reader TOP 50 REVIEWER on 21 Jun. 2013
Format: Paperback
The thesis of this book, broadly, is that with the edict of Theodosius I in AD 381 that all the Empire's subjects were required to subscribe to an accepted belief in the Trinity, the long history of free thought and debate without fear of recrimination throughout Europe, but especially in the East, came to an end. The author builds up wonderfully to this critical point in AD 381 with a very clear and enlightening analysis of political and religious thought, and how Theodosius' aims as Emperor came to dictate his impositions on religion. Following a very thorough analysis of the Trinity, the Nicene Creed and all related matters, the author then shows how in the hundred years and more following Theodosius' edict and the Council of Constantinople, free thought became more muted. Also, how the impact of the Nicene Creed went to inculcate a State involvement in the Church, and how it was no longer acceptable to disagree with what may be considered `accepted' belief; to deviate was to be a heretic, and to be a heretic was to be punished. But the problem often was, as many found out to the ultimate cost, that it was possible to be orthodox at one time, and then to be considered heretical soon after. Political, religious, cultural and philosophical debate became narrower and more sharply defined, and the costs of being on the wrong side became more state-imposed through the blending of state and religious roles and authorities.Read more ›
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