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on 9 November 2010
Table of Contents:

Preface xvi
Chapter I. INSTITUTIONS 1
I. The Rise of the Schools of Law 1
1. School of Law (Madhab) and College of Law (Madrasa) 1
2. Schools in an Individualistic System of Law 2
3. Emergence of Four Schools 2
4. Relationship between the Schools of Law and Theological Movements 3
5. Some of the Answers given and their Inadequacy 4
6. Key to Understanding the Phenomenon of the Schools 6
II. Typology of Institutions of Learning 9
1. General Remarks 9
2. Pre-Madrasa Institutions 10
a. Institutions Exclusive of the Foreign Sciences 10
1) The term Majlis and the Primacy of the Mosque 10
2) The Jami and its Halqas in Baghdad 12
a. The Jami 12
b. Appointments to Halqa Posts 14
1) The Case of al-Khatib al-Baghdadi 14
2) The Case of al-Bakri 15
3) the Case of al-'Abbadi 16
4) The Case of al-Qutrub 16
c. Variety of Subjects in the Halqas 17
d. The Maktab and the Kuttab 19
3) The Jami'in Damascus 19
a. Halqas and Mi'ad 20
b. Tasdirs 20
c. Sab's 20
d. Zawiyas 20
4) The Jami'in Cairo 20
a. Zawiya 20
b. Halqa 20
c. The Madrasa-Jami' 20
5) The Masjid 21
6) The Khan 23
b. Institutions Inclusive of the Foreign Sciences 24
1) The Libraries 24
2) The Hospitals 27
3. The Madrasa and Cognate Institutions 27
a. The Madrasa
b. Cognate Institutions 32
III. The Law of WAQF 35
1. The Founder 35
a. Qualifications 35
b. Founder's Freedom of Choice 35
c. Limitation of the Founder's Freedom of Choice 36
2. The Corpus 38
3. Objects of Waqf 38
a. charitable object 38
b. Declaration of Object and Other Considerations 38
4. Motives of the Founder 39
a. Qurba 39
b. Undeclared Motives 39
c. Misappropriation 40
1) Some cases 10
2) Anger and Indignation of the Doctors 43
5. The Mutawalli 44
a. Qualifications 44
b. Appointment 45
c. Rights and Responsibilities 47
d. Committee of Overseers 52
e. Dismissal 54
6. The Qadi 55
a. Prerogatives as Overseer 55
b. Finality of Qadi's Decision 56
7. Other Officals 57
a. The Mazalim Officer 57
b. The Naqib 57
8. Endowment Income 57
a. General Remarks 57
b. Stipends of Beneficiaries 58
1) Nature of Stipends 58
2) Terminology 58
3) Classification of Beneficiaries 59
c. Liability of the Mutawalli 59
d. Rights of the Beneficiaries 60
e. Methods of Disbursement 64
f. Other Dispositions of Income 72
1) Surplus Income 72
2) Stipend of Vacant Professional Chair 73
3) Disbursements When Deed Was Lost 74
4) Dispositions of Salary of Professor Without Students 74
Chapter 2. Instruction 75
I. Divisions of the Fields of Knowledge 75
1. Ibn Butlan and the Tripartite Division 75
2. The Subordination of the Literary Arts 76
a. Tha'lab and the Place of Grammar 76
b. Ghulam Ibn Shunbudh and the Place of Poetry 76
3. Waqf and the Dichotomous Division of Knowledge 77
II. Organization of Learning 80
1. Curriculum 80
a. Theoretical Sequence of Courses: Two Examples 80
1) Haitami 80
2) Hajji Khalifa 81
b. Examples of Actual Sequences 81
1) Sequences Taught 81
a. shafi'i 81
b. abu 'l-Hasan an-Nahwi 81
c. Ibn Abi Mulim al-Faradi 81
2) Sequences Learned 82
a. Abu 'l-Qasim al-Qushairi 82
b. Abu 'Ali al-Fariqi 82
c. Ibn al-Waqshi of Toledo 82
d. 'Abd al-Ghafir al-Farisi 82
e. Abu Bakr b. 'Abd al-Baqi 83
f. Al-Luraqi of Andalusia 83
g. Al-Qifti 84
c. Curriculum Vitae of 'Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi 84
2. Class Procedure 91
a. Position in class 91
b. Function of Fellows 92
c. Class Prayers 93
d. Daily Routine at the Madrasa Salihiya and Elsewhere 93
3. Teaching Days and Holidays 95
4. The Long Years of Study 96
III. The Methodology of Learning 99
1. Memory and Its Aids 99
a. Memorization 99
b. Repetition 102
c. Understanding 103
d. Mudhakara 103
e. The Notebook 104
2. The Scholastic Method: Origins and Development 105
a. The Attraction of Dialectic 105
b. Consensus vs. Caliphal Enactment of Decisions 106
c. The Antithesis of Ijma'-Khilaf 107
1) The Topics of Aristotle 107
2) Ijma' and the Chain of Authority 107
3) Legal Dialectic: Forensic 108
4) Technical Terms 108
5) Disputation at the Core of Legal Studies 109
3. The Scholastic Method as Form: the Ta'liqa Report 111
a. Advocacy 111
b. some general terms 112
c. The Ta'liqa and Fields Other Than Law 122
1) Grammar 122
2) Kalam 125
3) Medicine 126
g. The Ta'liqa and the Teaching of Law 126
4. The Scholastic Method as Function: The Munazara-Disputation 128
a. The Suhba Stage of Studentship and the Aim for Riyasa 128
1) Suhba 128
2) Riyasa 129
b. Regular Sessions of Disputation 133
c. Tactics, Violence and Recurrent Injunctions 134
d. Origin and Development of the Licence to Teach 140
1) Origin of the Concept of the Ijaza 140
2) Development of Fiqh 146
3) Authorization to Teach Law and Issue Legal Opinions 148
Chapter 3. THE SCHOLASTIC COMMUNITY 153
I. PROFESSORS 153
1. Designations 153
2. Status in the Community 153
a. Importance of the Profession post 153
b. Inaugural Lectures 154
3. Sources of Income 159
a. Fees from Students 159
b. Pensions 162
c. Endowed Salaries 163
d. Budgets of Some Colleges 163
1) The Shafi'i Imadiya College of Law 163
2) The Shamiya College of Law Intra-Muros 164
3) The Tankiziya College for Koran and Hadith 164
4) The Farisiya College of Law 165
4. Instability of Income and Resort to Abuses 165
a. Instability of Income 165
b. Embezzlement of Endowment Income 166
c. Multiplicity of Posts 167
d. Divisibility of Posts 168
4. Accession to Professorial Psots 170
a. By lline of Descent 170
b. By sale 171
c. Other Abuses 171
II. Students 171
1. Classifications 171
a. By Relative Levels of Studentship 171
b. As Stipendiaries 172
c. As Foundationers 172
d. As Participants in Class 175
e. Other Terms for Students 175
2. Somne Aspects of Student Life 175
a. The Idle Student 175
b. The Sham Sufi Novice 177
3. Financial Conditions 180
a. Professors' Support of Students 180
b. Patrons Among the Powerful 181
c. Mutual Aid 182
d. Wealthy Parents 182
e. The Endowed College 184
III. Posts, Occupations, Functions 187
1. Psots Pertaining to Law 188
a. Mudarris, and Na'ib-Mudarris: Professor of Law and Deputy-Professor of Law 188
b. Assistants to the Professor of Law 192
1) Mu'id, Repetitor 193
2) Mufid, Docent of Law 195
c. Ra'is 197
d. Mufti- Jurisconsult 197
e. The Qadi 200
f. The Shadhid-Notary, and other Auxiliaries of the Qadi 201
g. Mutasaddir 203
1) Terminology 203
2) Tasdir: A Regular Post 203
3) Tasdir and the Halqa 204
4) Mutassaddir and Mufid 204
5) Tasdir: A Paid Post 205
6) Tasdir and Ishghal/Ishtighal 206
2. Posts Pertaining to Other Fields 210
a. Shaikh al-hadith, professor of Hadith 210
1) Hadith and the Mi'ad 213
2) Meaning of Mi'ad 213
b. Assistants to the Professor of Hadith 213
1) Mustamli, Repeater of the Professor's Dictation 213
2) Mufid, Docent of Hadith 214
c. Nahwi, Grammarian, Professor of the Literary Arts 214
d. Shaikh al-Qira'a, Professor of Koranic Science 215
e. Other Occupations Pertaining to the Koran 215
f. Shaikh ar-Ribat, the Monastery Abbot 216
g. The Preachers 217
h. Imam, Leader of the Five Daily Prayers 218
i. Mu'allim, Mu'addib, Faqih: Elementary School Teacher 219
3. Other Occupations 220
a. "Arif, Monitor 220
b. Naqib, Marshall of the Nobility 220
c. Katib al-ghaiba, Keeper of Class Attendance 220
d. Nasikh, Warraq- Copyist, copyist-Bookseller 221
e. The Corrector 222
F. The Collator 222
g. Khadim, servitor 222
h. Khadim al-Khanqah, Administrator of a Monastery 223
Chapter 4. ISLAM AND THE CHRISTIAN WEST 224
I. Introductory Remarks 224
II. Institutions 224
1. The Univeristy as a Corporation 224
2. The College as a Charitable Trust 225
a. Waqf and the "pia Causa" of Byzantium 226
b. Waqf and the "Foundation" of France 226
c. Waqf and the Charitable Trust of England 227
3. The College-University as an Incorporated Charitable Trust 229
a. Siguenza, King's Marischal and Trinity 229
b. Colleges of Colonial America: The Case of Dartmouth 230
4. Waqf in Western Islam and Two Universities of Sourthern Europe 237
III. Instruction 238
1. The Lecture 241
2. The Report 243
3. The Scholastic Method as Finished Product: The Summa 245
a. The Studies of Endres and Grabmann 245
b. The Studies of Pelster and Kantorowicz 245
c. Two Authors of Model Summae: Ibn'Aqil and St Thomas Aquinas 253
d. The Channels of Communication 259
4. The Superior Faculties 260
a. Medicine at Salerno 261
b. Law at Bologna 262
5. Decline of the Literary Arts and Other Phenomena 263
a. Patow's Five Causes 264
b. Ars Dictaminis 266
c. Peter of Helias and Grammar 268
1) Grammar in Verse 268
2) Government in Grammar 268
IV. The Scholastic Community 270
1. The Professor and the Licence to Teach 270
2. Mufti, Magister and Magisterium 276
Conclusion 281
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