Shuyun was born to zealous communist parents in the 1960s; but a great influence in her childhood was a beloved maternal grandmother who lived with them and who was a devout, though illiterate, Buddhist. During the Cultural Revolution (1966 to 1976), the Red Guards staged bonfires of books, and the grandmother rescued from the pile a book of comic strips for her granddaughter. It depicted the legend of the Monkey King who protected an early 7th century Chinese Buddhist monk, Xuanzang, on an arduous 18 year journey from China to India and back, to bring back to China 657 Buddhist sutras from India. Shuyun loved the tale. She learnt that the Monkey King was legend, but that the journey of Xuanzang had really happened.
The Cultural Revolution ended; Mao died; the open practice of Buddhism was grudgingly permitted again. Shuyun was able to go to Beijing University in 1982, and then, in 1986, to Oxford. She married an Englishman and made her home in England; she became a documentary film maker with the BBC; but the story of Xuanzang never ceased to haunt her. Ever since she had lost her teenage faith in Communism, she had felt that `something was missing'. In 1999 she decided to travel in the monk's footsteps, though she would take one year instead of eighteen; and this book is built around an account of that pilgrimage.
The immense roundabout route, starting in Xian in Northern China, was through Xinjiang (Sinkiang), along part of the Silk Road, through the blistering Gobi Desert, and eventually enters India through the North-West frontier. Xuangzang faced the danger of avalanches as he crossed the passes in the frozen Heavenly Mountains into what is now Kyrgyzstan but was then ruled by the Great Khan of the Western Turks. From there he had travelled on through what is today Uzbekistan and then Afghanistan; but Shuyun was refused an Uzbek visa and could not travel through Afghanistan anyway. In Xuangzang's time Afghanistan had been a devoutly Buddhist area, but it was now run by the Taliban who would, within a year or two, destroy the great Buddhas of Bamiyan and every other Buddhist image in the country. So Shuyun flew direct to Peshawar, just inside Pakistan, to rejoin Xuangzang's route. And from there she at last entered India.
From now on we get rather more about the history of Buddhism than we have had so far, though in a rather unsystematic and unchronological way, dictated by the order in which Shuyun visits Buddhist landmarks. For example, her first major halt in India was Nalanda, the great Buddhist centre where Yogakara Buddhism was founded some seven centuries after the Buddha's death. Her next visit, to near-by Bodh Gaya, takes us back to the Buddha's own life-time: it was there where the Buddha had found enlightenment under the Bodhi Tree.
Xuanzang spent five years in Nalanda, mastering Sanskrit and translating sutras into Chinese, steeping himself in the doctrines of the different Buddhist schools before embracing the most difficult Yogakara school which he eventually propounded back in China.
Shuyun flies to visit places on Xuanzang's route after he left Nalanda: through Southern India, then up the West coast and then back across the Silk Route, its southern branch this time, taking in the old Buddhist kingdom of Khotan, which was so savagely destroyed by the Muslims about three centuries after Xuanzang's time.
Eventually the Muslim invaders destroyed Buddhism in India so completely that the history of Buddhism in its native country was lost even to the Indians themselves. And although Xuanzang's account of his journey was known in China, it was not known in the West until the 1850s. His account is so immensely detailed and accurate that it then helped western scholars and archaeologists, notably one Alexander Cunningham, to rediscover and sometimes excavate some of the most famous Buddhist monuments. Xuanzang was honoured as a sage and scholar in the India and the China of his own time; and now, among contemporary Indian Buddhists, he is immensely revered as the man who restored their lost history.
At last Xuanzang crossed back into China at Dunhuang, where he meditated for a while in the first of the thousands of caves which later became Buddhist places of worship with fabulous frescoes. One of the caves contained a depository of 50,000 Buddhist scrolls and manuscripts, discovered only in the early 20th century. Xuanzang then converted the great Tang Emperor Taizong from Daoism to Buddhism.
Shuyun had set out on her journey with an interest in Buddhism, but with some reservations, not only about the superstitious beliefs which had accompanied her grandmother's serene attitude to life, but also about the doctrines of karma and rebirth. Apparently it was only on her journey that she met Buddhists who taught her that true Buddhism discards the idea of miracles. And she was most drawn to a Buddhist school which was founded only in 1956 by B.R.Ambedkar, a convert from Hinduism, for this, too, rejects the idea of karma and rebirth, and relies entirely on the self-discipline and compassion taught by the Buddha. She ended her own journey with a stay in a Buddhist monastery in Dunhuang, in the hope that she might `reach the deep emotion and sense of belonging that I longed for.' It is not clear whether she managed that, although she gained a deeper appreciation of Buddhism - and she has certainly taught her readers a great deal about its history and its message (as well as given much other information, ranging from Islamic resistance movements in today's Khyrgizstan and Xinjiang, through aspects of Hinduism, through the lawlessness in the state of Bihar to silk production in Khotan).
Shuyun is a fine descriptive writer, but readers should also look at some wonderful pictures on Flickr or Google Images of places and monuments she mentions.
on 20 March 2005
Probably not the first book you would choose from the travel section, but it has proved to be so much more than some of it's more popular contempories.
It is a great travel book, leading you mostly through parts of China and India which may not be so familiar. It is also a fascinating journey into the impact of Buddhism, from the perspective of a 7th century Chinese monk who embarked on a journey to India for elightenment, and from Sun Shuyen, following in his tracks seeking understanding of the thing that her Grandmother held in higher importance than the Party.
The book commanded my attention throughout, fed me a knowledge of buddhism, both historical and modern, and allowed me to share in Sun Shuyen's often emotional learning experience. Give it a chance - you won't be disappointed!
on 31 October 2013
Brought up in the China of Mao's Cultural Revolution but still exposed to religion driven underground, Sun Shuyun benefited from the opening-up of the country to follow in the footsteps of the 7th century Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang who undertook a tremendously arduous and dangerous journey to India to research original scriptures of the Buddha and his disciples. Shuyun's experiences demonstrate that the journey is still full of perils today but her modest attitude, companionable nature and open mind enabled her to achieve it. Her account of it here shows how it stretched her mind constantly, and with hers the reader's does too. It is a journey through history as well as geography, she compares the sites in their neglected state now with their state when Xuanzang traversed them and the result is to experience tremendously different cultures and attitudes inhabited by all-too-familiar examples of universal human nature.
on 12 July 2011
This book is an eye-opening read on aspects of Chinese culture, the history of Buddhism, and an amazing pilgrimage by a 7th-century monk. Unfortunately I would never have bought it for myself - the paperback is packaged like some semi-esoteric personal musings, with a middle-aged lady wearing a shawl on the front cover, and some soppy stuff about grandmother's tales on the back.
Instead, the childhood tales are just motivation for the author's resolve to travel in the footsteps of Xuanzang, a Buddhist monk seeking knowledge in India. After his return to China, Xuanzang wrote up elaborate descriptions of the places he visited on his 20-year pilgrimage, translated many classical sutras into Chinese, and became the real-life inspiration of one of China's "four great classical novels". Ms Shu's modern-day trip gives us insights into life in Central Asia, as well as explanations of Buddhism's tenets and variations between its different schools. She professes an agnostic stance, making her descriptions all the more illuminating (if possibly not as gushing as a full-on believer).
The opening chapter from the cultural revolution is background story really - the rest of the book is more contemporary, and generally a lot less depressing.
Ms Sun has an easy writing style and gives (as far as I can tell) very objective accounts of ethnic, religious and cultural tensions and fusions she encounters in her repeat of Xuanzang's journey. For example, she relates hair-raising archaeological thefts by European explorers; but she also describes how enterprising British officers in India rediscovered long-neglected Buddhist site, using Xuanzang's thousand-year-old memoirs as an incredibly detailed guide.
My only reservation about the book would be that, like most travel books, it is somewhat episodical; so after I finished reading I didn't have a clear sequence of events in my mind and it was difficult to find particular passages again (though the index helped).
Ten Thousand Miles Without A Cloud is the first book by Sun Shuyun. It details Sun's experience as she tries to follow in the footsteps on Xuanzang, a Buddhist monk who, in the 7th century, made a pilgrimage through Central Asia and into India, to find the original sutras of the Buddha. Xuanzang made his trip during a time of political unrest, as does Sun; both confront obstacles and both come to understand Buddhism and themselves better for their encounters with others on the way. I found myself checking how many pages left and eyeing my next read with increasing frequency as the book progressed: never a good sign! Readers interested in Buddhism would find this book informative and enjoyable; readers with less of a fascination might find it somewhat repetitive and a bit slow. All those Chinese and Indian gods and historical figures had my eyes glazing over, but I did learn a few noteworthy facts. This was not my first choice of Sun's books: I still hope to read A Year in Tibet.