65 of 65 people found the following review helpful
on 7 January 2005
As an avid reader of history, you once in a while come across a book that is so vivd that you are immediately transported back to another world and time that you are reluctant to leave once you have completed the last page. I must admit that I was enticed to read this book following some excellent reviews and the photogenic cover but was totally unprepared as to just how compelling a read this would be. Despite the 500 or so pages, I found this book impossible to put down.
Having read a few books on the Empire of late, "The White Mughals" deals with a hitherto unknown aspect where Europeans of the 18th Century embraced Indian culture with vigor. As Dalrymple explains, this was very much the norm as many white settlers becoming Hindu or Muslim and taking Indian wives. Whilst the author laces the main theme of his story with fascinating footnotes, the book largely concerns the romance between the East India Company's governor in Hyderabad, James Kirkpatrick and the beautiful Indian noblewoman Khair un-Nissa. Having set the theme with a detailed account of the politics of the Nizam of Hyderabad's court, vivid descriptions of Indian festivals, gardens and architecture as well as the machinations of Richard Wellesley, the Governor General of the East India Company and brother to the future Duke of Wellington, the book really comes into it's own with the account of the tragic relationship between the two central characters. Not only is this book excellently researched, Dalrymple has unearthed a wonderful story which he has put across with aplomb.
Having ploughed my way through innumerable history books over the years ranging from the Romans through to the First World War, this is one of the very best books that I have read and cannot recommend it highly enough. This is a book that will challenge your preception of the role played by Britain in India and I would be intrigued to learn just many people will be inspired to visit Hyderabad having enjoyed this book. The "White Mughals" is demonstrative of how history should be written. A fantastic achievement.
29 of 29 people found the following review helpful
on 31 May 2006
This is a marvellous book, history at its most appealing as documentation of a period and as gripping narrative. At its core is the love story and marriage between James Achilles Kirkpatrick, the East India Company's Hyderabad resident at the end of the 18th century, and Khair Un-Nissa, the grand-daughter of a high ranking official at the court of the Nizam of Hyderabad. Kirkpatrick's significance is that he represents a little-known phenomenon: the adoption by some Europeans of the religion, manners and dress of Islam or Hinduism while (in the case of the book's protagonists) retaining their essential Britishness. Around this theme of cross-cultural migration and the personal narrative of the Kirkpatrick family whose children were sent off to England at a young age and never saw their parents again, William Dalrymple has woven a marvellous tapestry of Hyderabad court life, East India Company attitudes and Anglo-Indian intrigue. The story is peopled with some fascinating human beings including the Nizam's Prime Minister Aristu Jah and his assistant and later successor Mir Alam; the William Palmers father and son who appear to have achieved as complete an identity with their host country as it is possible to imagine; Marquess Wellesley, the bullying Governor General of the day and elder brother of the (later) Duke of Wellington; Khair's mother Sharaf un-Nissa who lived on for decades after her daughter's death and whose late correspondence with her granddaughter is one of the book's most moving moments; and James Achilles Kirkpatrick himself, a decent and honourable man, anointed son of the Nizam, at first willing instrument of the Governor General's policies but later disillusioned by the latter's excesses and prepared to counter them. It is through the sources he has unearthed, in particular the correspondence, that Dalrymple succeeds so brilliantly in bringing these forgotten people back to life so that their motives and passions engage us across the gulf of two centuries and profound changes in social assumptions and attitudes. The story is imbued with the author's own evident love of India and its people and his ability to steep himself in his subject so that we feel we breathe the air of the country.
Anyone who has the slightest affinity for India or an interest in the colonial Anglo-Indian relationship will love this book.
20 of 20 people found the following review helpful
on 20 March 2004
Beautifully written and very moving story of a romance between an Englishman and an Indian girl in the 18th century. The book provides an insight into how different British and Indian history could have been, had not the greed, ignorance and prejudice of a powerful few prevailed over the instincts of sensitive individuals like Kirkpatrick and many of his contemporaries.
An incredible amount of research must have gone into this book and Dalrymple's love and respect for India comes through on every page.
My only complaint is that he goes into too much detail about the politics of 18th century India -- this could possibly put off readers not familiar with India and its history. Basically at the heart of the book is the love story of Kirkpatrick and Khair -un-Nissa and several other couples like them -- and the very intricate descriptions of the politics tends to slow down the momentum.
But despite that, White Mughals is an amazing book that I would recommend to everyone -- don't be daunted by its size!
4 of 4 people found the following review helpful
on 28 April 2003
Dalrymple has researched and written a masterpiece of Anglo-Indian history.
This is a gripping story of love and multi-cultural respect born at the end of that era. The coming of Wellesley to India and the changing attitudes toward race and religion destroyed what multi-cultural understanding existed. The demise of that era precipitates the cultural mistrust and misunderstanding of Forster's "A Passage to India".
Kirkpatrick leads a tragic life but experiences true love and family devotion before his demise. Khair un-Nissa leads and even sadder existence because she must survive his death and the departure of their two children to England.
Many lessons for modern life from this beautifully-written and well-researched book. Like everything he has written, this book exceeds even high expectations.
3 of 3 people found the following review helpful
on 29 July 2009
That most British do not know who or what Anglo-Indians are, is a sad reflection on the lack of knowledge and interest for their own recent history. This classic love story chronicles the turbulent and ultimately doomed love of a British Officer James Kirkpatrick and his Persian-India Princess wife Khair-un-Nissa, a young woman of great beauty from the Court of the Nizam of Hyderabad.
Dalrymple brings to life the colour and vitality of this now forgotten era of high culture in Hyderabad, which today more known for its Biryani, was once a Centre of Southern Indian Islamic cultural sophistication. Court machinations and intrigue all play their part in the downfall of this tragic love affair. Dalrymples message is a timely reminder that Cross Cultural exchanges across considerable divides have been going on for Centuries, and that there are stories and poignant ones, that this story pays testament to. A beautiful story richly drawing on archival accounts and personal communications bring a host of characters to life in this long neglected subject.
3 of 3 people found the following review helpful
on 11 October 2007
This is a well researched book, it took Dalrymple just over 4 years and addresses a history of British India you won't find elsewhere, the integration of British and other European settlers into India and how they inter-married, converted to Islam, etc
All these things are now conveniently forgotton in the events that followed where the Victorian imperial prejudices are now thought of as having existed from the beginning. Dalrymple shows that this is not so and far more integration and mingling happened in the early years.
The book itself follows the relationship of, James Kirkpatrick, the British resident in Hyderabad in detail and combines it with the background and history of other characters and events relevant to the story. I found the style worked well but could sometimes be too much of a tangent to the main story especially if you're already familiar with the history.
I'd recommend this book to anyone with an interest in Indian history or the life of officers of the Honourable East India Company.
3 of 3 people found the following review helpful
on 25 October 2007
This book is a complex many-faceted marvel! It is carefully researched history transformed into the story of an ultimately tragic romance. With its portrayal of Europeans astride two cultures, it offers a wonderful, and probably unintentional, counterpoint to the Clash of Civilizations. It is a swarm of all-seeing flies on the walls and writing desks of Hyderabad's elite, both British and Indian, two centuries ago - with their city, dress, festivals and habits brought vividly to life. It is a fascinating description of British and Mughal political intrigue in and around the Deccan as imperial control tightened. It is a sensitive reflection on the rapacious, self-indulgent and precarious lives lived by the British in insalubrious coastal cities like Calcutta and Madras. And as result of the unbelievably painstaking process of meticulous documentation we are convinced that we are seeing events exactly as participants did. It is a mind-blowing accomplishment.
2 of 2 people found the following review helpful
on 10 November 2010
Dalrymple's account of Kirkpatrick's love for Mughal India is as insightful as it is intriguing. The author does not pretend to be detached from the people and events narrated. His sympathies for Kirkpatrick are clear and his disdain for the ambitious greed of the East India Company is evident in his characterisations of the company's senior India representatives such as Governor General Lord Richard Colley Wellesley and Kirkpatrick's successor as Resident of Hyderabad, Thomas Sydenham. Yet, the account is not one that tars all the British in India with the same brush. Apart from Kirkpatrick himself, there are sympathetic portrayals of British personalities who are enamoured with Mughal culture, such as the Resident of Poona, General William Palmer and mercenary soldier, Alexander Gardner. They, like many others, convert to Islam or Hinduism, and adopt lifestyles that reflect a hybrid culture that is mostly Indian but with a trace of the British.
India in the 18th century is not a backward culture of illiterates with barbaric beliefs and practices. In Dalrymple's extensive and detailed depictions, Mughal mores and personalities are delicate, sophisticated and guided by refined sensibilities with which British traditions and officials stand in stark contrast. It is therefore no wonder that so many Europeans who sought to influence and transform India then were themselves seduced, transformed, and Indianised.
Dalrymple tells a compelling and intriguing story. His portrayals of the major and subsidiary characters provide perspectives of not just how the individuals see themselves but also how the others perceive them. The rich detail extends to the detailed portraits of Mughal life as evident in the vivid descriptions of people and place, such as the people of Calcutta and Marsulipatam, and the Rang Mahal that Kirkpatrick builds for his wife.
While the narrative centres on Kirkpatrick's love for both his wife and adopted culture, I believe that the more significant focus in on its theme: the meeting of two civilizations. Kirkpatrick's attitude and stance towards the Mughals serve as a contrast to that of his superior, Governor General Lord Wellesley. In text-book history where accounts of different cultures meeting are typically presented as being in conflict (and this is something seen even now as evident in typical Western attitudes towards things un-Western, like Islam), White Mughals offers another option through the lesser known history of individuals such as Kirkpatrick. Through Kirkpatrick, the meeting of two cultures need not be characterised by antagonism. In Dalrymple's own words,
"As the story of James Achilles Kirkpatrick and Khair un-Nissa shows, East and West are not irreconcilable, and never have been. Only bigotry, prejudice, racism and fear drive them apart. But they have met and mingled in the past; and they will do so again."
19 of 21 people found the following review helpful
on 17 August 2004
I can't praise this book enough: an expertly-research, truly beguiling work of history, which brings its vibrant, glittering cast of characters to life. It is a compelling page-turner that is nevertheless neither simplified nor over-dramatised; poignant without sentimentality, analytical but never dry.
Dalrymple assembles and narrates his material with a deft touch; at every turn, his account is punctuated with the words and images of those at the drama's heart, drawn from their letters, diaries, portraits and architecture. What emerges is the tragic and immensely involving tale of cross-cultural love in Hyderabad at the very beginning of the nineteenth century: that of James Kirkpatrick, a prominent East India Company official, and Khair al-Nissa, his wealthy, high-ranking Indian wife, clothed in all the human detail the sources can provide.
What elevates the story above simple doomed romance, however, is the way Dalrymple interweaves their tale with the wider picture of the British relationship with India at the turn of the nineteenth century. Displaying the pair against a backdrop of both earlier and contemporary liaisons, examining changing attitudes as demonstrated in letters, monographs and paintings, Dalrymple makes a evocative case for Kirkpatrick and Khair al-Nissa as scions of forgotten age, when the British abroad were something quite different from their much-parodied mid- and late-19th century counterparts, dressing for dinner in the jungle.
These are the dying days of the EIC, when the opportunist merchants gradually lost out to the career militarists, when wide-scale annexation of subcontinental territories and the increasing segregation of colonial Britons from the populace around them began. Crucially, Dalrymple shows that, contrary to popular perception, the Raj did not spring into existence fully-formed, nor were British attitudes always infused with smug racist superiority. Kirkpatrick was, sadly, caught between eras; he came from a generation for whom adapting to the world in which one was living did not imply a deserting one irreconcilable cultural sphere for another. In the world of Kirkpatrick's youth, there were no hermetically-sealed categories of 'Englishness' and 'Indianness'. EIC agents based in one of the Company's outposts rarely expected to return home; many spent the majority of their lives in India, and had for centuries been happy to marry local women and to a greater or lesser degree adopt Hindu or Muslim practices. In this, they were simply following a trend that had affected foreigners to the subcontinent right down to the Portuguese who settled in Goa: India in all its diversity had an immense capacity for assimilation and accommodation of newcomers.
But by Kirkpatrick's day, change was coming - and in _White Mughals_ we see how the new attitudes overtook Kirkpatrick's domestic bliss. The political and social opprobrium that their marriage attracted may be seen as a microcosm for the gradual advent of cultural divisions that would so mar the Empire. The reasons behind this are complex, and for the most part explored convincingly by Dalrymple: greed for territory and military success, individual ambition and personality clashes, and the increased profile of British activities in India back home all contributed to an unprecedented level of pressure and scrutiny upon those 'in the field', and a growing conviction that relationships between Britons and Indians were politically problematic and (spurred in later decades by increased missionary activity) scandalously immoral. Nor does Dalrymple overstate the case for the transformation, or downplay exceptions to his model; relations between foreign merchants and Indian principalities were never unambiguous or completely harmonious, even in the early period.
Most importantly, though, what Dalrymple's work makes triumphantly clear is that relationships such as Kirkpatrick and Khair al-Nissa's were far from the aberration that shocked Victorian historians (or, later, those with an anti-Raj agenda) have made them out to be: they were a widespread, and widely-accepted, mode of cultural interaction in a time of different imperatives.
All in all, this is enjoyable, vital work, filled with rich detail and fascinating anecdotes that illuminate the central argument and enhance the reading experience at every turn. Wonderful.
2 of 2 people found the following review helpful
on 26 January 2004
Once more a brilliant take on the edge of empire that only William Dalrymple could have written. If you liked his other stuff, you will enjoy this, but amid the welter of (basically deserved) praise, a word of caution.
This is a long book, and yet ultimately its core thesis - of the Brits being more culturally intermingled in India prior to the Mutiny than was later claimed - is no more than what Dalrymple delineated in his brilliantly crisp chapter on the late 18th/ early 19th century Delhi in "City of Djinns".
Similarly, the most hyped part of the book, that once Muslims and Christians coexisted happily and we may be able to do so again despite September 11th, was done more deeply in "From the Holy Mountain", albeit there is a new Hindu angle here.
So, yes, I enjoyed "White Mughals" and yes, it's a beautiful love story, but having picked up "White Mughals" with alacrity, I will need to be heavily persuaded to read his next one, on the last king of Delhi, if it's the same length.