The calculational problems arising from the, testable, zero-dimensional "Point-particle" approximation has given rise to the one-dimensional "String" approximation. Decades of untestable, speculative, theory based upon closed and open microscopic strings, necessitating more and more exotic geometric extensions to the observable universe, viz:
Extra dimensions (most of which are "Rolled-up" and so invisible),
Branes (n-dimensional membranes), diffusion through stacks of which cause the attenuation of gravitational force,
Multi-universes, (The "Multiverse") allowing the probabilistic bifurcation of physical effect etc, etc.
Thousands of… Read more