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ShiDaDao Ph.D (London UK)

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The Method of Holding the Three Ones: A Taoist Manual of Meditation of the Fourth Century A.D.
The Method of Holding the Three Ones: A Taoist Manual of Meditation of the Fourth Century A.D.
by Poul Andersen
Edition: Paperback

2 of 2 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars The Method of Holding The Three Ones: By Poul Andersen., 25 Feb. 2012
Poul Andersen has studied Daoism (Taoism) in Taiwan and is decribed as a research fellow of Copenhagen University at time of publishing. This is an English translation of a short academic text originally written in Danish. It centres around the translation of a Chinese Daoist text of the Mao-shan sect which can be dated to the 4th and 5th centuries CE. The Chinese Daoist text is called the 'Jin-que-di-jun-san-yuan-shen-yi jing' - this translates as the 'Imperial Lord of the Golden Portal - Three Primordial, Perfected Ones Scripture'. This text is also preserved within Chinese biographical records under the name of 'Shou-san-yi zhi fa' - or the 'Method of holding the Three Ones' - which is also the subtitle of this book.

The paperback (1989) edition contains 66 numbered pages and is comprised of an Introduction, and five distinct chapters as well as the original Chinese text:

The origins of the Mao-shan sect.
The place of Scripture of the Jin-que-di-jun-san-yuan-shen-yi jing in the Shang-qing canon.
The meditational tradition ofJin-que-di-jun.
The content of Jin-que-di-jun-san-yuan-shen-yi jing.
Chinese Text.

The Mao-shan sect advocates that immortality can be achieved through meditative practice, and emphasises this practice over the performance of external ritual such as that found practiced within the Celestrial Masters Sect. The 'Jin-que-di-jun-san-yuan-shen-yi jing' was transmitted to a human known as Yang Xi between the years 364-370 CE. A number of Perfected Ones - or 'Immortals' visited Yang from their normal abode of the Shang-qing Heaven to explain their teachings and transmit their texts through a number of nightly visions. The Jin-que-di-jun-san-yuan-shen-yi jing deals specifically with the idea that three 'perfected' or 'immortal' beings simultaneously exist in the universe (macrocosm) and within the human body (microcosm). Concentration and visualisation builds the strength of the presence of these perfected ones within, and through the building of qi, immortality is finally achieved.

Help Blood Pressure 14 x 4g
Help Blood Pressure 14 x 4g

2 of 2 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Help: Blood Pressure: By Works With Water, 22 Feb. 2012
Verified Purchase(What is this?)
This product is described as an aid to help maintain a healthy blood pressure. Essentially blood pressure is the amount of force the heart exerts to pump blood around the body through the arteries - represented by the higher (systolic) number of a blood pressure reading - and the amount of pressure in the veins - the lower (diastolic) number in a blood pressure reading - as it travels back from the extremities of the body toward the heart. This process of blood flow from the heart to the arteries, from the arteries to capillaries, and from the capillaries to the veins and back to the heart, is believed to function an optimum level of 120/80, with the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Internation Society of Hypertension (ISH) developed the following classification:

!20/80 Optimal.
130/85 Normal Pressure.
140/90 Normal Systolic Value.
160/100 Mild Hypertension.
180/110 Moderate Hypertension.
Anything above this reading = Severe Hypertension.

If in doubt always contact a doctor and never self-diagnose. Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHG). Blood pressure can be measured at home with either wrist monitor or a cuff monitor. Doctors usually prefer the cuff version as it is thought to give a more accurate reading. It is always advised to seek professional medical advice and assistance if there is a question concerning blood pressure. However, should the blood pressure be elevated, Help: Blood Pressure food supplement may be able to assist in the stabilising of the reading. This is not a medicine and it is not desigtned to replace professionally prescribed blood pressure medication. It should not be used during pregnncy or nursing without first consulting a healthcare professional, and it is not recommended for those under the age of 18 years of age.

It contains Oligofructose and milk protein. Blood pressure has many causes, one of which is a constriction of blood vessels. This is triggered by angiotensin 11. In the Angiotensin Converting Reaction, called `ACE', this can cause blood vessels to constrict, or narrow, which has the effect of raising blood pressure in the circulatory system. Help: Blood Pressure is designed to lower hypertension of this kind by blocking the ACE reaction and restoring a normal blood pressure in around eight weeks. Each box contains 14x4g sachets which are described as gluton free and suitable for vegetarians, diabetics and lactose intolerant people. Two sachets are to be taken daily, dissolved into either hot or cold water, or mixed with soft hot or cold food. It is taste free and does not thicken when mixed into liquid. Each box contains a seven day supply.

Karate Katas of Wadoryu
Karate Katas of Wadoryu
by Shingo Ohgami
Edition: Hardcover

3 of 3 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Karate Katas of Wado Ryu: By Shingo Ohgami., 20 Feb. 2012
This is a superb book relevant to the traditional Karate practitioner - and the general martial arts historian - such is the clarity of its content. The author - Sensei Shingo Ohgami (b. 1941) - is a highly ranked (8th Dan) Japanese Karate master in the style of Wado Ryu, or 'Harmonious Way School'. This book deals with 'kata'. Kata originated in China hundreds of years ago before spreading to Okinawa and then to Japan. A kata is a set of movements involving the coordination of the entire body, coupled with an intense concentraion of the mind. These movements, consisting of kicks, punches, elbow and knee strikes, jumps, steps and sliding, were created from combative experience and passed down from master to student. The Japanese ideogram that is pronounced 'kata' suggests that a measured activity is brought out into the open - in Chinese the same ideogram is pronounced 'xing'. Each kata has around 30 movements and through the practice of these movements the historical knowledge is preserved.

The hardback (1981) edition contains 208 number pages and consists of a Preface and seven distinct chapters. The book covers nine individual katas, including coloured photographs throughout, as well as technical instruction:

Preface - Sensei Shingo Ohgami.
Kata in Karate.
Wadoryu Karate.
Postures, Stances.
Junzuki (Oizuki).
Study about Tsuki.
Energy Curves.
Kicks in Kata.

The katas included in this book are:

Pinan Shodan, Pinan Nidan, Pinan Sandan, Pinan Yodan, Pinan Godan, Kushanku, Naifanchi, Seishan, and Chinto.

The author clearly identifies three areas of distinct kata development in Okinawa, named after the cities they formed within, namely Shuri, Naha and Tomari. These cities represent the pattern of Chinese settlement, and/or influence in Okinawa, with Wado Ryu Karate descending from Shurite (i.e. 'Shuri-hand'). Chinese martial arts (wushu or gongfu) was brought by Chinese people to Okinawa when Okinawa was a tributory state of China. This gongfu mixed with the indigenous Okinawan martial art of 'te' (i.e. Okinawan for 'hand'), and formed TangShou (Chinese Hand). In Okinawan this is pronounced 'Tote' or 'Todi' When Tote spread to Japan it was renamed 'Karate', or 'Empty Hand'. This body of knowledge is essentially the katas and their movements, and it represents a spread of martial culture from China to Japan, via Okinawa. Wado Ryu is a mixture of this inheritance from Okinawa and the Japanese art of Jujutsu. The author also practices the Chinese art of Taijiquan, which utilises relaxed but aligned movement to generate power. This book is a martial classic.

Torquay (Pocket Images)
Torquay (Pocket Images)
by Mike Holgate
Edition: Paperback

2 of 2 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Torquay: By Mike Holgate., 20 Feb. 2012
This is an excellent pocket-book guide to the English seaside resort of Torquay - situated on the south Devon coast. It is a volume issued as part of the 'Pocket Images' series, and as such continues the investigation of local British history. Despite its relatively small format - length 17cm-width 12.5cm - nevertheless a surprising amount of information and photographic illustration is included. The book presents black and white photographs from the late 1800's, up until 1963, with maps and sketches dating to much earlier times. One such sketch depicts Torre Abbey and its environs, dated to 1660. Many of the photographs have been provided by Local Studies Archive situated at Torquay Library.

The paperback (2005) edition contains 128 numbered pages and is of an Introduction and nine distinct chapters, as well as containing over 200 black and white photographs, maps and sketches:

Introduction - By Mike Holgate 1998.
1) Early Days.
2) Special Events.
3) The War Years.
4) Holiday Weather.
5) Regattas and Carnivals.
6) Trains, Boats and Planes.
7) Road Transport.
8) Sport and Leisure.
9) Torquay Library.

Torquay has been described as the 'Quenn of the English Riviera', but in 1801 it was a village with a population of just 838 people. According to the author, it was during the Nepoleonic Wars of the early 1800's that began the expansion and popularisation of the area - although, of course, William of Orange landed with his troops in the area (at Brixham) in 1688. The railway arrived in 1848 and Torquay became a place of great repute and a seaside resort of much renown. By 1900 the population of the area had risen to 35,000. This book offers a pictural insight into a very special place that has touched the hearts of many.

The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana
The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana
by Theodore Stcherbatsky
Edition: Hardcover
Price: £19.99

3 of 3 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana: By Theodore Stcherbatsky., 19 Feb. 2012
The author - Theodore Stcherbatsky (1866-1942) - was a Russian Indologist who was fluent in both the Sanskrit and Tibetan Languages. He is believed by many to have laid the foundations in the West of the academic study of Buddhist history and philosophy. It is interesting to note that Stcherbatsky was active as an academic both before and after the Soviet Revolution of 1917, and was a member of the Academy of Sciences of the former USSR. The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana was first published (in English) in 1927 and became very popular in Europe. He wrote about, edited and translated many Buddhist texts and his informed analysis has received praise from Indian academics. This is a book about 'nirvana', or 'enlightenment' from the perspective of the Mahayana school of Buddhism. Stcherbatsky valuable work on Buddhist thinking followed in the footsteps of the German Karl Koppen (1808-1863) - himself an acknowledged expert upon the origins of Buddhism, and a personal friend of Karl Marx.

The hardback (2003) edition contains 222 numbered pages that comprise the core of the book. There are a further 42 numbered pages that comprise and Index and a Glossary, as well as 52 pages dedicated to the presentation of the Sanskrit text entitled the 'Madhyamaka-Karika'. This books contains numerous chapters separated into four distinct parts:

Preface to the Second Edition - Jaideva Singh (1977).
Part 1 - A comparison of Hinayana and Mahayana notions of nirvana and its comparison with Brahmanic thinking.
Part II - An examinatiom of karma (causality) in the Hinayana and Mahayana, and how this effects nirvana.
Part III - Sanskrit text of Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka Sastra, with commentary by Candrakirti.
Part IV - Index and Gloassary.

The Buddhist scholar Nagarjuna (c. 1st century CE) was a genius. He re-examined the teachings o the Buddha and interpreted them so that the notion of 'sunyata' or 'emptiness' became central and paramount. This is a logical conclusion from the studying of the numerous Buddhist sutras (teachings), and created a philosophical viewpoint that cut across the sectarian divide that represented Buddhism at that time. Early Buddhism, although acknowledging that en enlightened mind was 'empty' (of greed, hatred, delusion and a belief in self), nevertheless asserted that the physical world was 'real' even if it were transitory. Nagarjuna dismissed the idea that the physical world could be 'independently' real and logically extended the notion of 'emptiness' to include all phenomena.

This is a very interesting book that conveys a reliable over-view of the subject of Buddhism, which successfully attempts to create an understanding of the different schools of Buddhist thought, with an emphasis upon the Madhyamaka school and its teaching upon 'sunyata', or 'emptiness'. Although standard of Western academia nowadays is very high with regard to Buddhist studies (Buddhology), Stcherbatsky's work has stood the test of time and is a joy to read. The Sanskrit term 'sunyata' translates literally as 'emptiness', but does not refer to a state of complete 'voidness', or 'nothingness'. Instead, it is used within Mahayana Buddhism to mean 'devoid', and refers to the real nature of existence as possessing no inherent substantiality. In other words, the phenomenal world is 'empty' of any permanent structure, but is not in a state of extinguished nihilism. Stcherbatsky tends to translate this term as 'relativity' because each aspect of existence (including the mind) is equally 'empty' of permanency and therefore exists in a 'relative' manner in relation to all other things. Enlightenment, according to this teaching comprises of the direct realisation of this 'empty' state of existence through the cultivation of yogic meditative practices. Sunyata is not, and can never be just an abstract intellectual notion, but is rather the consequence of a direct experience in and through the mind, an experience which transforms the world. A spiritual classic.

The Marx-Engels Reader
The Marx-Engels Reader
by Friedrich Engels
Edition: Paperback
Price: £18.99

4 of 4 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars The Marx-Engels Reader: Edited By Robert C Tucker., 19 Feb. 2012
This review is from: The Marx-Engels Reader (Paperback)
This book is a superb compendium of the intellectual output of Karl Marx (1818-1883), and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) - spanning the entire life work of both men, with the emphasis obviously focusing upon Marx himself - the founder of modern 'Scientific Socialism'. In this regard the writings of the young Mark are included. It is interesting to note that Engels, whilst often in the rather ample historical shdaow of Marx, nevertheless was interested in social justice before coming fully aware of the work of Karl Marx himself, and that after becoming a close friend of Marx - often assisting him and his family both materially and financially - outlived Marx by over a decade, and in that time produced some very interesting work - also included in this book. In this regard it would be very difficult indeed to historically appraise the work of Marx without recourse to the supportive work of Engels. Engels never sought the limelight and always deferred to Marx on matters of doctrinal definition.

The paperback (1978) edition is revised and enlarged, and consists of an ample 788 numbered pages. This book contains a Preface, a Chronology, an Introdction and is divided into five distinct parts:

Preface To The Second Edition.
Chronology: The Lives of Marx and Engels.
Notes on Texts and Termonology.
Part I. The Early Mark.
Part II. The Critique of Capitalism.
Part III. Revolutionary Programme and Strategy.
Part IV. Society and Politics in the Nineteenth Century.
Part V. The Later Engels: Elaboration and Popularisation.
Bibliographic Note.

Important key texts include:
Discovering Hegel.
For a Ruthless Criticism of Everything Existing.
Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right.
On the Jewish Question.
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 - aka Paris Manuscripts.
Alienation and Social Class.
Theses On Feuerbach.
The German Ideology Part I.
Wage Labour and Capital.
The Grundrisse.
Das Kapital - Volumn I.
Das Kapital - Volumn III.
Crisis Theory.
Manifesto of the Communist Party.
Critique of the Gotha Programme.
After the Revolution: Marx Debates Bakunin.
The Tactics of Social Democracy (Engels).
The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte.
On Social Relations in Russia.
Speech at the Graveside of Karl Marx (Engels).
Socialism: Utopian and Scientific (Engels).
On Morality (Engels).
On Authority (Engels).

The editor - Robert Tucker Ph.D - at the time of publishing was professor of politics emeritus at Princeton University. He received his Ph.D from Harvard and has written extensively upon the subject of Karl Marx and 'Marxism', as well as the former Soviet Union, Lenin and Stalin. As a Western academic produced by the most advanced Capitalist country in the world, Tucker brings an unusual clarity to the assessment of the work of Karl Marx that is insightful and based upon facts, rather than ideology or dogma. Tucker, as a true academic, seeks understanding from the chosen field of his studies. He points out that although Marx (a man of Jewish ancestry) is often depicted as 'antisemitic' due to his text entitled 'On The Jewish Question', the text itself was actually a response to two critical essays written by Bruno Bauer - a Young Hegelian - with much of what Bauer wrote mistakenly attributed to Marx himself. Nevertheless, upon clearing this point and establishing context, Tucker does say that certain aspects of what Marx actually wrote - regardless of Bauer's input - could be construed as antisemitic, although Marx is criticising politics and commerce in the light of religious presence in society. There is, however, a wealth of intellectual insight contained within the work of Marx which is developed throughout his life and presented in this book. This is an excellent depository of Marxian work - what can actually be described as Claccial Marx. It is what Marx really thought and wrote, rather than what later thinkers believed he meant, or wanted him to mean. This book presents the work of Karl Marx (and Engels) in its unadulterated form and does the subject a great service as a consequence.

Love, Laughter and Truth
Love, Laughter and Truth
Price: £10.00

1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Love, Laughter and Truth: By Bill Hicks., 16 Feb. 2012
It is astonishing to consider that a talent as profound as Bill Hickes - only recorded four complete albums for release before his untimely passing from cancer in 1994, and that only two of these were actually released whilst he was alive. The two others were released posthumously conforming to the editing and sequencing notes left by Bill himself. A fifth album was eventually released - cross-referencing unedited material from these four albums. The album under review here is special. It is comprised from many hours of unedited material recorded in various places between 1990-1993. It was recorded on many different sound systems and under varying standards of quality. The Hicks Estate has many of these kinds of recordings made by Bill himself as a personal record of performances. Key performabces were collected onto two CD's, and then edited down to the single CD we have here. The sound quality is very good, but does varying from time to time. It has been lovingly edited and restored so as to remove hisses and pops, as well as minimise the change in sound levels. The result is a stunning collection of incredibly funny and insightful material:

The CD - Bill Hicks - Love, Laughter and Truth - was released in 2002 and consists of 18 distinct tracks:

1) Intro/Smokers Vs Drinkers. 2) Drunk Driving. 3) New York Apartment. 4) My One Man Show. 5) Pot Smoking. 6) Drugs Are Bad. 7) Children On Airplanes. 8) 50 Year Smoker. 9) Smoking InHeaven. 10) Australia. 11) Satiating The American Audience. 12) Dance Club. 13) Speaking Of Homosexuality. 14) Poe-Naw-Grah-Fee. 15) A Question For The ladies. 16) My Favourite New Kid. 17) You Can't Get Bitter. 18) Closing Bit.

Bill speaks of the changing attitudes to alcohol drinking in the USA, and says that in the early 1980's - if a Cop pulled you over asked if you had been drinking - and the answer was 'yes' - he would apologise for inconvenience and send you on your way. In the early 1990's, by way of contrast, if you got pulled over for drinking every Cop car in the County would descend to watch you audition for your own freedom. Bill says that he use drink so much that on one occassion, when he was pulled over by the Cops he started 'dancing' to their flashing lights - thinking that he had made it to another nightclub. He speaks about pornography and the positive side to drug taking - pointing out the media distortion of the subject. One can not help being moved by the honesty and sincerity of Bill Hicks - and living in the times that we do, his brand of humour and intelligence is much needed. A masterpiece of expression.

Arizona Bay
Arizona Bay
Price: £10.00

1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Arizona Bay: By Bill Hicks., 15 Feb. 2012
This review is from: Arizona Bay (Audio CD)
A masterful display of the usual philosophical humour expected from the comic genius of Bill Hicks (1961-1994). His delivery consists of a subtle blend of insight, wit, social commentary and the occassional piece of defining vulgarity. Although deeply spiritual, Hicks often criticised establisged Christianity for its insistance upon a literal interpretation of the Bible - in this recording Hicks mentions how a Christian he knew described the presence of dinosaur fossils upon the Earth as 'god testing his faith' - but nevertheless always professed a deep spirituality and a belief 'in a living god'.

The 1997 CD edition contains 18 individual chapters taken from Bills Hicks' live performance of December, 1992, at the Laff Stop - aka Capital City Comedy Club, Austin, Texas:

Bill Hicks - Arizona Bay
1) Goodbye You Lizard Scum. 2) Step On The Gas (LA Riots). 3) Hooligans. 4) Officer N'gger Hater. 5) As Long As We're Talking Shelf Life (Kennedy). 6) The Elephant Is Dead (Bush). 7) Me & Saddam. 8) Bullies of the World. 9) Shane's Song. 10) Dinasaurs in the Bible. 11) Living God. 12) Marketing & Advertising. 13) Don't Talk For Me. 14) Clam Lapping & Sonic The Hedgehog. 15) She's Got A Broken Heart. 16) Pussywhipped Satan. 17) LA Falls. 18) Elvis.

This is a very strong performance from a man who died far too young. Hicks demonstrates a staggering intellectual assessment of American history and culture, and the impact of that culture upon the world. Hicks is able to integrate UFO's, philosophy, theology, political satire, and social communtary with the poignant observation of 'the everyday'. Spiritually uplifting and intellectually inspiring.

Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge
Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge
by Kulatissa Nanda Jayatilleke
Edition: Hardcover
Price: £100.00

3 of 3 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge: By KN Jayatilleke, 5 Feb. 2012
This is an extraordinary and incisive book covering every aspect of the development of knowledge in early Buddhism. This work set the premise for the eventual development of Buddhist philosophy within the context of pre-existing Brahmanic spiritual texts such as the Rig Veda and the later Upanishads. The Buddha's teachings are contrasted and compared with what today might be referred to as 'Hindu' thought, together with the other schools of philosophy extant in his day such as the Materialist and Jain school, amongst others. It appears that although certain aspects of previous modes of thinking may appear within Buddhist philosophy, nevertheless, upon closer inspection it is seen that the Buddha's system is alsways slightly different and unique.

The hardback (2004) edition contains 519 numbered pages and consists of a Foreward, a Preface and is separated into nine sections and an Appendix:

Foreword (By D Friedman).
Foreward (By Alex Wayman).
Part I - Historical Background I - Vedic.
Part II - Historical Background II - Non-Vedic I - Materialism.
Part III - Historical Background III - Non-Vedic II - Sceptics, Ajivikas, and Jains.
Part IV - The Attitude To Authority.
Part V - The Attitude To Reason.
Part VI - Analysis and Meaning.
Part VII - Logic and Truth.
Part VIII - Authority and Reason Within Buddhism.
Part IX - The Means and Limits of Knowledge.
Appendix I - An assessment of the Tevijja Sutta and the concept of 'Brahma'.

The author - KN Jayatilleke (19920-1970) - is a fine Sri Lankan scholar well known for his academic work in the field of Buddhist history and philosophy. This book is considered a classic in the assessment of the development of early Buddhist philosophy. Not only this, however, but Jayatilleke highlights other academic opinions - both from the East and West - and carefully examines the merits of the presented arguments in the light of a careful and precise assessment of the early Buddhist sutras. As a consequence, Jayatilleke not only presents areliable academic opinion upon the interpretation of Buddhist philosophy, but also dismisses academic theories that he proves to be incorrect or mistaken. This is a magnificant book worthy of study. A timeless spiritual classic.

The Buddha and Five After-Centuries. With plates
The Buddha and Five After-Centuries. With plates
by Gautama Buddha
Edition: Unknown Binding

2 of 2 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars The Buddha: By Sukumar Dutt., 5 Feb. 2012
This is a very lucid, thought provoking book. It carries the subtitle; '...and The Five Hundred After Centuries', and is essentially an academic survey of the development of early Buddhism dating from the time of the passing of the Lord Buddha (563-483BCE), and the development and organisation of the teachings themselves over the subsequent five hundred years. During these five hundred years, the original teachings of the Buddha progressed from being preserved within an oral tradition passed down from one generation to the next, to the eventual recording of these teachings in written form.

The hardback (1957) edition contains 259 numbered pages and consists of a Foreword, a Preface, Four distinct sections (containing many chapters) and 26 photographic plates:

Foreword (By G Tucci).
Preface (By Sukumar Dutt).
Part I - The Founder.
Part II - Buddhism In The Making.
Part III - Buddhism Of The Asokan Age.
Part IV - The Old Cult In Crucible.

The author - Sukumar Dutt Ph.D (born 1891 - deceased date currently unavailable) - is a very good Indian scholar who has produced a number of books written upon the subject of early Buddhism and its development. This book traces how the Buddha's teachings as they were codified after his death into a written doctrine that was dominated by the monastic community, and how this state of affairs resulted in the development of eighteen schools of Buddhist thought, and the eventual split between the conservative Theravada school and the more liberal Mahasanghika school, the early forerunner of the Mahayana. Dutt skillfully takes apart the Buddhist sutras and compares what the Buddha is reported to have taught, with the various doctrinal interpretations developed by the later monastic community. In so doing, Dutt reveals how the Buddha's teachings have had subtle but profound divergent interprretations superimposed over them. For instance, the Buddha clearly denies 'omniscience' in the sutras. and yet later commentaries develop a definite narrative suggesting that the Buddha was omniscient. Although a tree is not present in the sutras that describe the events surrounding the Buddha's enlightenment, eventually the commentaries assumed the presence of a tree. The concept of Saddha, or 'conviction', is used in the sutras to explain a confidence in the Buddha's teachings attained through experience. Later this developed into a 'faith-like' ideal toward the Buddha, as if he were a god. This book is a gold mine of information, and one can not help but think that in its academic clarity, Dr Dutt is in fact continuing the Buddha's method of pristine analysis. A spiritual classic.
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