17-50mm means the lens zooms between those two focal lengths.
35mm means it is a fixed focal length or 'prime' - so no they are not equivalent.
In answer to your question:
Tamron - make
AF = auto focus
17-50mm = range of focal lengths of this zoom
f2.8 = is the aperture (equivalent to the light gathering ability of the lens)
XR = model range
Di = for digital use with APSc sensor size
II = mark 2
LD = low dispersion - meaning advanced coatings on the lens surfaces for better light transmission
Aspherical = refers to the use of aspherical lens elements which offer certain advantages
IF = means internal focus - where the focus motor is in the camera body (like the older Nikons)
Nikon = the lens mounting - what camera it fits. (but may not auto focus with if the motor is not in the body)
All that really matters out of that lot is 17-50mm and f2.8. The rest is like the initials you see on the tailgate of a car.
I think you need to find out something about photography before you go chucking your money about. If you bought 3 of the lenses in your list you'd end up with at least one which duplicated the role of another.
For instance, going back to your lens list, the 55-300, 70-300 and the other 70-300 (which you thought would be good for architecture!) are all roughly the same spec. They are all telephotos - for taking pics of objects long way away. They are bulky and have high f numbers - which equates to low light gathering power.
Since you are new to photography what makes you think that a dSLR is right for you? Do you own a camera just now? and what is it? Have you held a dSLR, in a shop for instance?
Do you want video capability? Everyone on this forum is disinterested in video so you may not get much help there.
As I said before I'd get a camera with a standard lens - like the kit lens, and take some pics to start learning about photography. This will cover you for building interiors, portraits, the kids and general views and landscapes. It will get you fairly close up (18", say) but it won't do macro - but a true macro lens is an expensive and specialised piece of kit and needs a tripod and focussing rack at the very least. It won't do bird shots either, but lets not run before we can walk. My sister in law got some great wildlife shots in the Kruger with just a standard zoom.
Most people start with a compact - a Panasonic TZ8 or TZ10 would be a good start. If you later get a more advanced camera that TZ8 will still be good as a back up and can be taken anywhere in a pocket - so it will still get used.
If your heart is set on a dSLR well satisfy yourself that the bulk will not put you off taking it everywhere with you.
Get a good book - like Understanding Exposure by Petersen and find out about the basics before buying kit you don't understand the first thing about.
I don't think this forum is the best place to teach you enough about photography - try Googling 'getting started in photography' or similar. There are plenty of good articles out there.
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