Watch Buyers Guide

Selecting a watch that you, or someone else, will use and enjoy for many years to come can be a fun and easy process with a little bit of knowledge. If you are not sure what kind of watch to buy or what kind of functions it should have, consider the following:

Watch Buyers Guide:Choosing Your Watch Style, How Watches Work, Watch Movements, Watch Features, Watch Cases, Water-Resistance in Watches,Watch Bands and Straps, Caring for Your Watch, Watch FAQ, Watch Glossary
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Choosing Your Watch Style

More than just something you wrap around your wrist to help keep you punctual, a watch can help express your personal style. The first thing to ask yourself is "when and how will I be wearing this watch?" In the end, a watch is a reflection of you and your lifestyle, just like the clothes you wear or the car you drive.

The watch that you select should be appropriate for the activities for which you intend to use it. If your primary purpose is athletic, you might consider watches that are shock-proof. If you will be using the watch for work and play, do you need water-resistance? If so, to what degree? If you will be using the watch for swimming and diving, you might want to consider a watch that has a screw-down crown or a plastic strap.

You will also want to consider how much you want to spend on a timepiece. The £50 to £200 range brings durability as well as accuracy and stylistic flourishes. You'll find some models sporting chronographs and other multifunction complications, as well as some with gold-plated stainless steel cases and bracelets. In the over £200 luxury range, the style and manufacturing complexity gets ramped up, often with more sophisticated movements, diamond accents, or solid gold cases and bracelets.

When shopping for a timepiece, whatever the price or style, the brand name can play an important part in determining the right watch for you. Brand choice can be very subjective and will vary from person to person. Ultimately, it comes down to how you perceive a brand and what it represents, as well as what speaks to your sensibilities - high style or brand history, modern or traditional, collectible or affordable.

Casual Watches
Amazon.co.uk: Watch Buyers Guide: Casual watches Choose a casual watch that fits your personality and lifestyle. Think about the colours you wear the most and try to match them to the watch. Do you want to go bright and bold, add bling to your style, or keep it simple and chic?

The watch face should be comfortable and easy to read. Look for watch features such as a seconds hand or date window that are useful to you.

Choose a comfortable band material. Keep in mind that leather is typically lighter weight with a closer fit, but is not water-resistant. A metal bracelet is usually heavier, water-resistant, and more durable. A rubber strap typically has a casual look and is water-resistant.
See casual watches from Casio, Timex, Lorus.

Dress Watches
Amazon.co.uk: Watch Buyers Guide: Dress watches Think thin if you want the watch to fit under your sleeves, or think bigger if you want to stand out.

Both men and women can add diamond or gemstone decorative features for formal occasions.

Metal bracelet bands are usually preferable, but fine leather should not be overlooked.
See dress watches from Rotary, Movado, Invicta and more.

Sports Watches
Amazon.co.uk: Watch Buyers Guide: Sports watches Look for a sports watch that is easy to read, such as a watch from our selection of digital watches. The case of the watch is typically larger to house the timer, alarm, and other features found in sports watches.

Choose a water-resistance level appropriate for your needs. For instance, scuba divers should look for a watch with a minimum rating of 200 metres.

On analog watches, look for a rotating bezel to aid in timing specific events. For serious runners and bikers, a digital watch provides a wider range of timing features.

Watch strap material should be based on personal preference and type of sport during which the watch will be worn. The most popular material for sports watches is plastic or rubber.
See sports watches from Timex, Casio, Breo.

Pocket & Fob Watches
Amazon.co.uk: Watch Buyers Guide: Pocket watches and Fob watches Pocket and fob watches have a chain or clip to allow them to be secured to clothing. This enables them to be 'easily to hand' and prevents the risk of the watch being dropped or lost.

These watches can be very practical for anyone working in a health-care or medical profession, where an unadorned wrist has clear health, safety and convenience benefits.

Pocket watches can be used as a fashion statement for the 'dapper' gentleman. The preference is for the chain style of watch that can be clipped to a lapel or waist coat pocket, and often have watch covers with characterful designs.

Watch material should be based on the desired use. Plastic or stainless steel is useful in work environments, while dress pocket watches may be made from materials such as stainless steel, chrome or pewter.
See pocket & fob watches from Ravel, Lorus, A E Williams.

Fashion Watches
Amazon.co.uk: Watch Buyers Guide: Fashion watches If you are in the market for a fashion watch, the rules go out the window. A great way to update your look or accentuate an outfit, fashion watches can be a rather personal choice.

Look for a watch that speaks to your artistic sensibilities, or can be thought of as an extension of your personality. The current trend is for over-sized and chunky watches, with some men's watches measuring well over 50 millimetres (2 inches) wide. Not everyone can wear the boldest fashion trends in clothing, but everyone can wear it in a watch. Don’t be afraid to try different styles and colours in your watches.
See fashion watches from DKNY, D&G, Police, Betty Barclay, ICE-Watch.

Luxury Watches
Amazon.co.uk: Watch Buyers Guide: Luxury watches With many high-end luxury watches, you are paying for the finest materials, expert craftsmanship, and exclusivity (fewer numbers are manufactured for individual models). A fine watch is a wonderful heirloom to pass down from one generation to the next.

Consider one with automatic movement and a skeleton caseback which display the craftsmanship of the watchmaker. While fine watches are made all over the world today, Swiss watches still enjoy the highest reputation due to the wealth of knowledge and infrastructure built up in the Swiss watch industry over centuries. Keep in mind that a watch can only be given the coveted Swiss-Made label if its movement is made, assembled, and inspected in Switzerland.
See luxury watches from Citizen, Bulova, Raymond Weil, Ebel.

How Watches Work
In addition to their exterior beauty, watches are also an incredible feat of engineering and craftsmanship. This section contains an overview of the major parts of a watch, as well as an explanation of how watches operate.

Many complicated parts must work in tandem with each other not only tell time, but perform a myriad of other functions. These could include a chronograph, altimeter, alarm, day/date calendar, moon phase, and slide rule bezel. Below are descriptions of the major internal and external parts and their functions.

External Watch Parts

Crystal
The crystal is the cover over the watch face. Three types of crystals are commonly found in watches. Acrylic crystal is an inexpensive plastic that allows shallow scratches to be buffed out. Mineral crystal is composed of several elements that are heat-treated to create an unusual hardness that aids in resisting scratches. Sapphire crystal is the most expensive and durable, approximately three times harder than mineral crystals, and 20 times harder than acrylic crystals.

Hands
A watch's hands are the pointing devices anchored at the center and circling around the dial, indicating hours, minutes, seconds, and any other special features of the watch. There are a number of different types of hands:
Alpha: A hand that is slightly tapered
Baton: A narrow hand, sometimes referred to as a 'stick hand'
Dauphine: A wide, tapered hand with a facet at the center, running the length of the hand
Skeleton: Cutout hands showing only the frame
Luminous: Hand-made of skeleton form, the opening filled with a luminous material

Bezel
The bezel is the surface ring on a watch that surrounds and holds the crystal in place. A rotating ratchet bezel moves in some sport watches as part of the timing device. If rotating bezels are bi-directional (able to move clockwise or counter clockwise), they can assist in calculations for elapsed times.

Crown
The crown is the nodule extending from the watch case that is used to set the time, date, etc. Most pull out to set the time. Many water-resistant watches have crowns that screw down for a better water-tight seal.

Dial
The dial is the watch face that contains the numerals, indices, or surface design. While these parts are usually applied, some may be printed on. Sub-dials are smaller dials set into the main face of the watch. These can be used for added functions, such as elapsed times and dates.

Watch Case
The watch case is the metal housing that contains the internal parts of a watch. Stainless steel is the most typical metal used, but titanium, gold, silver and platinum are also used. Less expensive watches are usually made of brass that has been plated with gold or silver.

Bracelet
A bracelet is the flexible metal band consisting of assembled links, usually in the same style as the watch case. Detachable links are used to change the length of the bracelet. Bracelets can be made of stainless steel, sterling silver, gold, titanium or a combination.

Strap
A strap is simply a watchband made of leather, plastic or fabric.

Internal Watch Parts

Balance Wheel
The balance wheel is the regulating organ of a watch with a mechanical movement that vibrates on a spiral hairspring. Lengthening or shortening the balance spring makes the balance wheel go faster or slower to advance or retard the watch. The travel of the balance wheel from one extreme to the other and back again is called oscillation.

Gear Train
This series of small gears responsible for transmitting the power from the battery (in a quartz watch) or spring (in a mechanical watch) to the escapement, which distributes the impulses that mark the time.

Escapement
This part of the watch restricts the electrical or mechanical impulses of the gear train, metering out the passage of time into equal, regular parts.

Motion Work
The motion work is a series of parts inside a watch that receive power from the escapement and gear train, which distribute and generate the watch’s power. The motion work is responsible for actually turning the watch’s hands.

Mainspring
The mainspring is the energy source responsible for powering the watch movement (as opposed to a battery in a watch with a quartz crystal movement). The spring is wound, either manually (using the winding stem) or automatically, by the motion of the wearer’s wrist. Potential energy is stored in the coiled spring, then released to the gear train which transmits the power to the escapement and motion work, which turns the hands on the watch dial.

Putting it all together
Watches essentially tell time by the integration of three main components, an energy source, a time regulating mechanism, and a display. The energy source can be electronic (as in a battery) or mechanical (as in a wound spring). A watch’s main timekeeping mechanism is called its movement.

Watch Movements
A watch’s movement is its main timekeeping mechanism. The movement of a watch refers to the mechanics that power the ticking of the timepiece, and there are two main choices when it comes to analog watches (watches with hour hands and are not digital), quartz or automatic.

Quartz movements are powered by a battery and do not stop working once removed from your wrist. Automatic mechanical movements mark the passage of time by a series of gear mechanisms. Most automatic movements are wound by the normal, everyday movement of your wrist, which charges the watch’s winding reserve.

What you choose really comes down to what you're looking for in a watch. There are many ways to look at what's attractive about both types of watches, but one way to look at it is the quartz watch as more practical and the automatic watch as more emotional.

Quartz
Quartz watches work with a series of electronic components, all fitting together in a tiny space. Rather than a wound spring, a quartz watch relies on a battery, that needs to be replaced every 2 to 3 years, for its energy. The battery sends electrical energy to a rotor to produce an electrical current. The current passes through a magnetic coil to a tiny quartz crystal, which vibrates at a very high frequency (32,768 times a second), providing highly accurate timekeeping. These impulses are passed through a stepping motor that turns the electrical energy into the mechanical energy needed to turn the gear train. The gear train turns the motion work, which actually moves the hands on the watch dial.
Watches with quartz movements are more accurate, losing about a minute of accuracy over a year, and they can have either analog or digital displays, or both.
Shop Quartz Watches

Automatic (also called "Mechanical")
Automatic/Mechanical watches mark the passage of time by a series of gear mechanisms, that need to be wound. A manual mechanical watch needs to be wound by hand on a consistent basis, where as an automatic mechanical (also referred to as a self-winding watch) utilizes kinetic energy and the movement of your wrist to wind the mainspring. Mechanical watches are made up of about 130 parts that work together to tell time. Movement is based on a mainspring which when wound slowly unwinds the spring in an even motion to provide accurate timekeeping. The gear train then transmits the power to the escapement, which distributes the impulses, turning the balance wheel. The balance wheel is the time regulating organ of a mechanical watch, which vibrates on a spiral hairspring. Lengthening or shortening the balance spring makes the balance wheel go faster or slower to advance or retard the watch. The travel of the balance wheel from one extreme to the other and back again is called oscillation. Lastly, automatic movements come in different types, including movements that are Swiss-made, Japanese-made, and more.
Shop Automatic Watches

Mechanical Watch Maintenance
Although mechanical watches do not have batteries, some easy-to-follow maintenance is necessary for continued and long-lasting good use.
If you have a hand-winding mechanical watch, it is best to wind it at the same time every day. This is extremely beneficial for the mechanism. You may want to make it a routine, winding it every morning when you wake up. If your watch has a day/date function, avoid setting the day and/or date at night. The day-date mechanism is activated during the nighttime hours and could be disrupted if set at this time.
Self-winding automatic watches depend on the movement of the arm to operate and do require some winding, even if you wear your watch on a daily basis. If you wear your automatic watch every day, it is best to wind it once every two weeks to keep the wheels in motion and oil fluid. Simply wind the crown (the same knob used to adjust the time and date) until you meet slight resistance. If you do not wear an automatic watch consistently (for about 8 to 12 hours a day), you can keep the watch powered with a watch winder (a great gift for collectors).
Shop Watch Winders

Other Movements
Solar
Some quartz watches are solar-powered, storing light that enters through the dial face, which eliminates visits to the jeweler to change the battery.
Shop Solar Watches

Swiss Movements
It might be stereotypical, but it's true. Many of the world's finest and most accurate timing movements, be they quartz or automatic, are created in Switzerland. Swiss-manufactured movements are found in a wide swath of watches sold worldwide, but a timepiece can only be awarded the coveted Swiss-made label if the movement is made and then subsequently encased in Switzerland.

Watch Display
Digital
The display of time in numbers instead of hands on the dial. The numbers can appear in an LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), which shows a continuous reading or an LED (Light-Emitting Diode), which shows the time at the push of a button.
Shop Digital Watches

Analog
An analog display watch shows the time by means of hands. The analog display has a traditional dial with hour, minute, and sometimes second hands.
Shop Analog Watches

Analog-Digital
An analog-digital display watch shows the time by means of hands (analog display) as well as by numbers (digital display). This feature is usually found on sport watches.
Shop Analog-Digital Watches

Watch Features
At its most basic, a watch is there to conveniently remind you of the time with just the flick of your wrist. But for more timing capabilities, you can add what are known in horological terms as complications, which run the gamut of the stopwatch-like chronograph to a display of moon phases to a calendar window. Below are some of the most popular complications found in today's watches.

Calendar
One of the most ubiquitous complications, calendar watches include a small window showing the date, typically placed on the dial at 3 o'clock. You'll also find some date watches that include the day of the week in a separate window. Most calendars count out to 31, requiring you to manually reset the date on those months that don't have 31 days.
Some date watches have smarter calendar complications. An annual calendar can run for a full year without resetting until you get to March (as February's 28 or 29 days throws it off). But you won't have to worry about resetting the date for a long time with a perpetual calendar watch, programmed to automatically adjust for the varying lengths of months as well as leap years to the year 2100.
Shop Calendar Watches

Chronograph
Another popular complication in today's watches is the chronograph, which enables you to use your watch as a stopwatch to time specific events as well as multiple laps. To start timing, you'll press one of the pushers on the side of the watch case. Depending on the watch, you may press that pusher or a second one to stop the timing. Chronographs have two or three smaller subdials (also called totalizers or registers) placed on the dial face that display the seconds, minutes, and hours. Quartz chronographs can measure events down to 1/10 of a second, while their automatic counterparts can get as accurate as 1/5 of a second. In addition to timing your exercise, chronographs can be paired with a tachymeter scale (placed around the outside of the dial or on the rim of the bezel) to determine the average speed covered over a specified distance.
Note: Don't confuse the term "chronometer" with a chronograph. Where a chronograph is part of a watch's mechanics, a chronometer is a timepiece that's been certified by the Controle Officiel Suisse des Chronometres (or COSC, the official Swiss chronometer inspection body) as being highly accurate. Only three percent of watches produced in Switzerland are chronometer-certified. To achieve this highly coveted certification, the movements are subjected to numerous tests over a period of 15 consecutive days and nights, in five positions and at three different temperatures. And a chronometer may or may not be a chronograph.
Shop Chronograph Watches

Moon Phase Indicator
More of an ornamental complication, lunar phase watches depict the illuminated portion of the moon as seen on Earth via an illustrated disc that rotates beneath the dial. Once set, the indicator will rotate completely once every 29 days, 12 hours, and 44 minutes.
Shop Moon Phase Watches

Dual Time Zone and World Time
If you do a lot of traveling, a dual time zone watch (also called a GMT watch) can be handy as it will show you the current time where you are as well as the time in a second time zone. This is done either via an extra hand, twin subdials, or a 24-hour scale placed on the dial. If you need to keep track of business time on several continents, a world time watch typically displays 24 city names placed on the dial or bezel to represent each individual time zone. You can read the hour in a particular time zone by looking at the scale set next to the city that the hour hand is pointing to.
Shop Dual Time Watches

Multifunction
This is a generic term for a non-chronograph watch that displays information such as month, day, and date in two or three subdials.
Shop Multifunction Watches

Watch Cases
Watch cases, the housing of the timepiece that contains the internal movement, can be made out of anything that's durably solid, but today's cases are primarily made of stainless steel. Stainless steel is quite durable and contains a bit of chromium to help protect the steel from corrosion and rust. Typically silver in color, it can be plated with a thin layer of gold (about 10 microns, or 1/1000 of a millimeter in thickness) in whole or in part for added accent. You can also find stainless steel cases in different colors, thanks to a process called ionic plating or PVD (physical vapor deposition) which usually gives it a matte finish.

The most popular form of gold is still yellow gold, but rose gold, featuring a pinkish tint due to a higher concentration of copper in its alloy mix, is gaining in popularity. When shopping for gold watches, pay attention to the fineness (or purity) of the gold as expressed in carats. A single carat equals 1/24 of the pure metal, so an 18 carat gold watch translates to 75 percent pure gold (whereas 14 carat gold equals 58 percent).

Titanium has become popular in higher-end watches as it's a bit more expensive and harder to work with. Offering a lighter shade of silver, titanium is 50 percent lighter than steel, but 30 percent stronger. For watch enthusiasts who have allergic reactions to stainless steel, titanium is an excellent alternative as it doesn't contain nickel (the allergen found in stainless steel). It's also a great choice for diving and water sports as it's very resistant to salt water corrosion. On the downside, it's a bit more apt to picking up scratches.

Additionally, you'll find watch cases made of precious metals, such as platinum (used in luxury watches) and sterling silver, ceramic, tungsten, aluminum (also very corrosion-resistant), and carbon fiber. Sport watch cases are typically made of hardened rubber, plastic, or resin, and are a good option for use during more rugged activities.

Shapes
Wrist watches come in a few basic shapes: round, square, and rectangular. A fourth popular shape is Tonneau, which has a tall orientation with a flattened top and bottom, and bulging sides that resemble a barrel. Round watches are the direct descendent of the pocket watch and are the most popular shape. The majority of sport watches will be circular as it's the shape that's easiest to make water-resistent. Square watches provide more of a canvas for adding decoration to fashion watches. Rectangular watches are considered dressier as they can be better hidden under the sleeve. Tonneau-shaped watches present a unique retro style and are also considered dressy thanks to their slimmer profile.
Citizen Men's Eco-Drive Skyhawk A-T Titanium WatchEmporio Armani Gents Brown Leather Strap Watch with Amber DialChristina Design London Stainless Steel Ladies 40 Diamond Bracelet WatchEbel Beluga Tonneau Women's Stainless Steel Quartz Watch
Round caseRectangular caseSquare caseTonneau case

Case Size
Watches are typically measured in millimeters (mm), which might not be familiar to those of us without a lot of metric system experience. Any given watch typically has three measurements: case diameter, case thickness, and band width.

At Amazon.co.uk, you'll find these measurements listed in the Product Specifications section of each product detail page.
Product Specification table that appears on Amazon.co.uk highlighting case diameter, case thickness and band width
For a comparison, a GBP Two Pound Coin measures 28.4mm in diameter (1.11 inches), comparable to an average-sized woman's watch, such as this women's Movado watch measuring 27mm.

Women's Movado watch being compared in size to a British Two Pound coin

A larger-sized chronograph watch for men measuring 43mm (1.68 inches) in diameter is about the size of a regulation golf ball.

Men's Citizen watch being compared in size to a golf ball

Men'sWomen's
SmallLess than 36mm (1.42 inches)Less than 24mm (0.94 inches)
Medium37 to 40mm (1.43 to 1.57 inches)24 to 30mm (0.94 to 1.18 inches)
Large41 to 46mm (1.65 to 1.81 inches)31 to 36mm (1.26 to 1.42 inches)
Extra Large48mm and more (1.89 inches and more)40mm and more (1.57 inches and more)


Guidelines for thickness:
Thin: 4 to 6mm (0.16 to 0.24 inches)
Average: 7 to 11mm (0.28 to 0.43 inches)
Large: 12 to 14mm (0.47 to 0.55 inches)
Extra Large: 15 to 18mm (0.59 to 0.71 inches)


While you can get a sense of a watch's size from its width measurement, be aware of the dial's design. Consider two watch cases that have the same measurement. One might appear larger because its dial extends to the very edge of the case, while the other seems smaller because it has a thicker bezel that frames the dial. Ultimately, this visual measurement is rather subjective.

One measurement you won't find is the weight of a watch, but one thing to keep in mind is that adding a metal bracelet will add to the watch's heft on your wrist. If weight is a concern, consider a bracelet and case made of titanium, a metal that's far lighter than stainless steel.

Watch Bands
Without a band of some type, you'd have a pocket watch (though there's certainly nothing wrong with that). But today's watches are primarily wrist watches, bound to your wrist with a strap made of leather, rubber or fabric, or a metal bracelet. Save for a few activity-specific guidelines, your choice of band comes down to personal preference.

A leather strap is suitable for everyday wear. Finer grades of leather, ranging from alligator to patent, are a great choice with dress watches. However, if you are planning on wearing your watch during water sports, you might prefer to go with a rubber strap instead. Leather straps are not as durable as metal bracelets, but they are easier to replace. Finally, leather straps are typically connected using a standard buckle, but you can also find some that are joined by a deployment buckle (or a butterfly clasp), which opens symmetrically.

Metal bracelets are typically composed of individual links and are joined by a metal-hinged clasp, such as the aforementioned deployment, as well as a fold-over or jewelry clasp. The bracelet attaches to the watch case at the lugs, usually with spring bars, which enables you to easily switch to a leather or rubber strap. However, some higher-end watches have an integrated bracelet, where the watch case and band are designed as a whole, and it usually can't be replaced by a strap.
Shop Watch Straps

Sizing a Metal Bracelet
While leather straps are pretty easy to fit around your wrist with its buckle and punched hold, a metal bracelet can be trickier as one or more links may need removal to correctly size to your wrist. While this can be done on your own using a bracelet tool accessory, we recommend taking your watch to a local jeweler for precise sizing. Be sure to keep any links that are removed in case you need to replace a link somewhere down the line.
Shop Watch Repair and Resizing Toolkits

Water Resistance
Whether you're a scuba diver or just a frequent dishwasher at home, you'll want to pay attention to the water-resistance of your watch. Water-resistance ratings are listed in certain depths, typically in metres, but the numerical depth shouldn't be taken literally. The depth rating actually represents the results of tests performed in a lab's pressure chamber, and not real-world sea depths.

A watch marked as water-resistant without a depth indication is designed to withstand accidental splashes of water only. Do not submerge such a watch. Higher levels of water-resistance are indicated by increasingly higher acceptable depths, usually indicated in metres.

A watch with a back that screws onto the case provides a higher degree of water-resistance. Some crowns with a winding stem actually screw into the case to further increase water-resistance.

We do not recommend swimming or diving with your watch unless it has a screw-down crown (also known as 'screw-lock' or 'screw-in' crown) and is water-resistant to at least 100 metres.

Note: Water-resistance is sometimes listed using the abbreviation ATM, which stands for "atmosphere" and 1 ATM represents 10 metres. In Europe, "bar" is often used instead of ATM.

Below are typical water-resistance ratings and their corresponding parameters for real world usage.

DepthATMUsage
30 metres (100 feet)3 ATMCan withstand rain and splashes of water, such as car washing and showering, but it shouldn't be worn swimming
50 metres (165 feet)5 ATMSuitable for swimming, as well as higher altitude sports, such as skiing and parachuting
100 metres (330 feet)10 ATMSuitable for snorkeling, as well as swimming
200 metres (660 feet)20 ATMSuitable for recreational scuba diving
300 metres (990 feet)30 ATMFor use when scuba diving to a depth of 30 metres for up to 2 hours
500 metres (1650 feet)50 ATMFor use when scuba diving to a depth of 50 metres for up to 2 hours


Maintaining Water-Resistance
Like everything in life, a watch's water-resistance isn't guaranteed forever. The gaskets or O-rings that make up the watch's watertight seals can degrade over time, and even opening the caseback for changing the battery can affect water-resistance. To make certain that your watch will stand up to the pressure that was designed for, a watch can be tested and repaired by a service center authorized by the manufacturer. Here are some tips on maintaining your timepiece's water-resistance.

Tips
* Never submerge even the highest-rated water-resistant watch in a hot tub (or take it into a sauna), as the gaskets can lose their shape when exposed to extreme heat.
* After submersion in salt water, rinse your watch with warm fresh water to help avoid corrosion.
* If your watch has a screw-down crown, make sure to screw it tightly into the watch case to help prevent any chance of water getting into your timepiece.
* Do not expose your watch to extreme changes of temperature. * Do not press buttons underwater.
* Read your manual so you know features and resistance.

Care for a Water Resistant Watch
It is not recommended to wear your water-resistant watch in a hot shower, sauna or hot tub. The extreme heat can cause the metal parts to expand at a different rate than the rubber gaskets. This creates small openings that can allow water droplets to penetrate the watch. Sudden temperature changes are especially harsh. Take care not to jump into a cold pool after wearing your watch in the hot tub.

After swimming or diving in salt water, immediately rinse the watch in a stream of fresh water. If your watch has a rotating bezel, turn the bezel several times while rinsing it. This will prevent salt buildup and corrosion of the bezel ring.

Leather straps can be made to be water-resistant too. Generally however, leather straps are more easily damaged by frequent exposure to water. If you are going to wear your watch while swimming, think of buying one with a metal bracelet or a rubber or nylon diver strap.

Caring for Your Watch
While a watch can be considered a decorative accessory, it is also a tool that needs cleaning and tuning from time to time to ensure its accuracy, looks, and longevity.

Read the Manual
Timepieces with chronographs or specialized complications, such as dual time functions or day-and-date subdials, can be complicated to set for the first time (or remember after several months of not using the function). The first resource you should turn to is the manual that came with your watch, and you should keep it for future reference, as well as warranty and service information. If you have a watch with automatic movement, the manual will also specify maintenance intervals. Should you lose your manual, be sure to check your manufacturer's website as many provide downloadable PDFs.

The Case for Cleaning
Just as you wash your car to keep its exterior looking fine and protected from corrosion, you'll want to periodically take a few moments to make sure your timepiece is a clean machine. Here's a few tips for overall care and cleaning.

Watch Case
Wipe with a lint-free cloth and use a toothpick to extract dirt from crevices. If your watch is water-resistant, you can wipe it with warm water and mild soap, and dry it with a cloth.
After wearing in salt or heavily chlorinated water, rinse the watch in fresh water and dry with a soft, lint-free cloth.
Wipe your watch with a soft cloth after heavy perspiration.

Crystal
A watch may have a scratch-resistant crystal, but no crystal is truly scratch-proof, so you shouldn't toss your watch onto the dresser or into a drawer at the end of the day. It's better to store or wrap it in a soft cloth before placing it down. The more care you take with the watch, the less scratches the watch will acquire. Replace broken or scratched crystals immediately. Even a hairline crack can let dust or moisture into the mechanism, threatening its accuracy. If you place the watch in a drawer with other jewelry, this too may scratch the watch, as it might rub against the other pieces. You might also store the watch in its original case since these cases are generally soft and made specifically for the watch.

Metal Bracelets
Wash it in warm, soapy water and use a soft-bristled toothbrush to extract excess grime. Dry with a soft cloth.

Leather Straps
To keep a leather strap looking its best, avoid submersion in water. If it does become wet, wipe it dry with a cloth. Never use a hairdryer.
In the summer, wear leather straps loosely to avoid absorption of perspiration (and to prevent perspiration rash on your wrist). Dry with a cloth, or let it dry in a well-ventilated spot.

Crystal
No crystal, whether it be mineral or sapphire, is scratch-proof, so you should take care in storing your watch at the end of the day. Wrap it in a soft cloth for optimal protection.
If a crystal has even a hairline crack, replace it immediately.

Automatics
Automatic watches require a bit more care than those with battery-powered quartz movements, as the self-winding mechanism is more complex. For one thing, an automatic watch is powered by the kinetic movement of your arm, and it will require winding if not worn for several days. Automatic watch mechanisms also benefit from continued movement to keep it calibrated and prevent lubricants from congealing. If you have more than one automatic watch that you switch between, you should consider a watch winder, a device that holds one or several timepieces and moves it in a circular fashion to emulate the human motion that keeps it ticking. They're also a great way to display your watch collection. When choosing a watch winder, look for devices that have a "turn-and-rest" program, which stops the motor after a specified cycle of spins to more accurately emulate daily activity.
If you don't wear your automatic watch daily and don't have a watch winder, wind the watch twice a week and try to do it at approximately the same time of day. (A fully wound automatic watch will keep running for approximately 40 hours.)
Avoid wearing mechanical watches when playing high-impact sports or those that require continuous arm motion (such as tennis).

Maintaining Water-Resistance
To help keep your watch protected from the elements:
1. Never submerge even the highest rated water-resistant watch in a hot shower, sauna or hot tub. The extreme heat can cause the metal parts to expand at a different rate than the rubber gaskets. This creates small openings that can allow water droplets to penetrate the watch. Sudden temperature changes are especially harsh. Take care not to jump into a cold pool after wearing your watch in the hot tub.
2. If your watch has a screw-down crown, make sure to screw it tightly into the watch case to help prevent any chance of water getting into your timepiece.
3. After swimming or diving in salt water, immediately rinse the watch in a stream of fresh water. If your watch has a rotating bezel, turn the bezel several times while rinsing it. This will prevent salt buildup and corrosion of the bezel ring.
If you detect any moisture in the watch or the crystal begins to fog, take it to a service professional as soon as possible.
Leather straps can be made to be water-resistant too. Generally however, leather straps are more easily damaged by frequent exposure to water, so if you are going to wear your watch while swimming, think of buying one with a metal bracelet or a rubber or nylon diver strap.

Let the Professionals Handle It
While there are several things you can do on your own to ensure that your watch can be handed down to the next generation, you'll need to turn to professionals for a few things.
While some metal bracelets can be sized on your own with the purchase of a sizing tool, a watch professional can take the stress out of it and help you size it correctly.
Changing batteries in quartz movement watches (about every two to three years).
If you notice your timepiece running slow or fast, bring it in to a professional for a tune-up that includes internal cleaning and oiling.

Watch FAQ
What if my watch bracelet is too big for my wrist?
If you ordered a watch with a metal bracelet, you may need to have one or more links removed for the watch fit your wrist properly.
You can take your watch to a reputable jeweler or watch repair shop for sizing. Expect to pay a small fee for this service. If you choose to size your own watch, exercise extreme caution and ensure you have the correct tools for the kind of watch band links you're removing. If sizing is done incorrectly, a watch can be scratched or damaged. Be aware that most retailers will not accept returns once a watch has been sized, so be sure you want to keep it before you size it.
Tip: Keep the removed links. Watch bracelets occasionally break, and it is a lot easier (and cheaper) to have the bracelet repaired with your own links rather than order new ones. You will also be able to adjust the watch with the extra links if you prefer to wear your watch looser in the future. The best place to keep them is in the watch box with your insertion manual.

What's the difference between quartz and mechanical (or automatic) movements?
The movement, or inner workings, of the watch are what make up the main timekeeping mechanism. Most watches have either a quartz movement or a mechanical movement. The type of movement you choose depends mostly on one's taste. Mechanical movements are a tribute to the watchmaker's art and monitor the passage of time by a series of gear mechanisms.
A mechanical movement that does not have to be wound is known as an automatic movement. These self-winding movements are wound by the movement of your wrist (you don't have to shake it to work - the normal, everyday movement of the watch on your wrist charges the winding reserve). When this type of watch is removed from your wrist, the movement winds down in 10 to 72 hours, depending on the size of its winding reserve.
Quartz movements, on the other hand, are powered by a battery and do not stop working once removed from your wrist. When activated by a battery or solar power, the thin sliver of crystal very predictably vibrates at an extremely high frequency (32,768 times per second), providing very accurate timekeeping. The battery in a quartz watch generally needs to be replaced every 1.5 years.

What's a watch crystal?
The crystal is the clear cover over the watch face. Three types of crystals are commonly found in watches. Acrylic crystal is an inexpensive plastic that allows shallow scratches to be buffed out. Mineral crystal is composed of several elements that are heat-treated to create an unusual hardness that aids in resisting scratches. Sapphire crystal is the most expensive and durable, approximately three times harder than mineral crystals and 20 times harder than acrylic crystals. A non-reflective coating on some sport styles prevents glare.

Are watches really water-proof?
No. In fact, they aren’t. It is actually illegal to represent a watch as being water-proof. Watches, however, can be water-resistant. In fact, most watches have some sort of water-resistance. A watch marked as water-resistant without a depth indication is designed to withstand accidental splashes of water only. Do not submerge such a watch. Higher levels of water-resistance are indicated by increasingly higher acceptable depths, usually indicated in metres.
There are a variety of ways to make a watch water-resistant. All such watches use rubber gaskets or "O" rings to seal the case back. A watch with a back that screws onto the case provides a higher degree of water-resistance. Some crowns (the "winding stem") actually screw into the case to further increase water-resistance.
We do not recommend swimming or diving with your watch unless it has a screw-down crown (also known as "screw-lock" or "screw-in" crown) and is water-resistant to at least 100 metres.

What is a dive watch?
Dive watches traditionally feature a graduated rotating bezel, a screw-down winding crown, and a case back. Dive watches must be water-resistant to at least 200 metres (660 feet).

How do I get the functions on my watch to work?
Because watches offer many different functions, the best way to learn what each function means and how each function works is to refer to the instruction manual that came with your watch.
The typical functions on an analog chronograph watch are a seconds hand, a 30 or 60 minute timer, and 1/10th of a second. These functions are controlled by the buttons above and below the crown.

What do the different movement types mean?
Automatic Movement (Automatic Winding or Self-Winding): Powered by the motion of the wearer's arm rather than by turning the winding stem. In response to this motion, a rotor turns and winds the watch's mainspring so that it keeps accurate time. Most automatic watches have up to 36 hours of power reserve. If an automatic watch is not worn for a day or two, it will need to be wound by hand to restart again.
Mechanical Movement: A watch's mechanical movement is based on a mainspring which slowly unwinds in a steady motion to provide accurate timekeeping. As opposed to a manual mechanical watch, which needs to be wound on a consistent basis, an automatic mechanical watch requires no winding because its rotor winds the mainspring when the wearer moves their wrist. Read the section on automatic watch maintenance for more details.
Quartz: Quartz is a caliber that uses the vibrations of a tiny crystal to maintain timing accuracy. The power comes from a battery that must be replaced about every 2-3 years. In recent years, new Quartz technology enables the watch to recharge itself without battery replacement. This power is generated via movement similar to an automatic mechanical watch, or powered by light through a solar cell (Kinetic and solar-tech).

What is a screw down crown?
A screw-down crown aids water-resistance by sealing the crown to the case of the watch. A seal is achieved when the case locks with the crown's internal threads and gaskets fastening the crown in its place.

What does it mean if a watch is Swiss Made?
Swiss Made is a label used to indicate that a wrist watch was made in Switzerland. A watch is considered completely Swiss Made if it contains a movement that is Swiss, if the movement itself is encased in Switzerland, and if any final quality control by the manufacturer occurs in Switzerland. This is current Swiss law, and changes may occur in the future.