This work offers a comprehensive account of how film-making and film exhibition developed in the coalfield and the rest of Wales. The author also analyzes the output of directors working in film and television in the recent decades. The launch of a Welsh language television channel in 1982, films such as Hedd Wyn (nominated for an Oscar) build upon the legacy of the film industry in Wales, as discussed in the text. The rise of the travelling cinema showmen of Wales is discussed along with the picture palaces of the tens and twenties and the impact of cinema in wartime. A detailed filmography of more than 300 movies made for cinema is provided, together with lists of milestones and credits for most of the film-makers and actors.