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Vision: A Computational Investigation into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information [Print Replica] [Kindle Edition]

David Marr , Tomaso A. Poggio , Shimon Ullman
5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (1 customer review)

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  • Print ISBN-10: 0262514621
  • Print ISBN-13: 978-0262514620
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Book Description

David Marr's posthumously published <I>Vision</I> (1982) influenced a generation of brain and cognitive scientists, inspiring many to enter the field. In <I>Vision</I>, Marr describes a general framework for understanding visual perception and touches on broader questions about how the brain and its functions can be studied and understood. Researchers from a range of brain and cognitive sciences have long valued Marr's creativity, intellectual power, and ability to integrate insights and data from neuroscience, psychology, and computation. This MIT Press edition makes Marr's influential work available to a new generation of students and scientists. In Marr's framework, the process of vision constructs a set of representations, starting from a description of the input image and culminating with a description of three-dimensional objects in the surrounding environment. A central theme, and one that has had far-reaching influence in both neuroscience and cognitive science, is the notion of different levels of analysis -- in Marr's framework, the computational level, the algorithmic level, and the hardware implementation level. Now, thirty years later, the main problems that occupied Marr remain fundamental open problems in the study of perception. Vision provides inspiration for the continuing efforts to integrate knowledge from cognition and computation to understand vision and the brain.

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About the Author

David Courtnay Marr (1945-1980), one of the originators of the field of computational neuroscience, was Professor of Psychology at MIT. Shimon Ullman is Samy and Ruth Cohn Professor of Computer Science at Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. Tomaso Poggio is Eugene McDermott Professor in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT.

Product details

  • Format: Kindle Edition
  • File Size: 62024 KB
  • Print Length: 432 pages
  • Publisher: The MIT Press (9 July 2010)
  • Sold by: Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
  • Language: English
  • ASIN: B008H5Q1M6
  • Text-to-Speech: Enabled
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  • Average Customer Review: 5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (1 customer review)
  • Amazon Bestsellers Rank: #601,597 Paid in Kindle Store (See Top 100 Paid in Kindle Store)
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Most Helpful Customer Reviews
3 of 3 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Excellent. 14 April 2000
By A Customer
With clear and rigorous explanation, Marr presents an excellent framework for understanding the several levels of the primate vision system. A wonderful book for anyone with an interest in the subject.
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Most Helpful Customer Reviews on (beta) 4.2 out of 5 stars  9 reviews
40 of 43 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Revolutionary thinker 29 Sept. 2000
By Magellan - Published on
Although dead at the young age of 36 from leukemia, Marr's computational and mathematical approach to vision revolutionized the entire area of vision research, after which it was never the same. There are strong hints of this approach in the earlier work of Julesz and Gibson, but Marr's work takes the whole field a quantum leap further, giving it a rigorousness and mathematical elegance never before seen.
For example, to mention just a few of his important ideas, Marr's demonstrations that retinal receptive field geometry could be derived by Fourier transformation of spatial frequency sensitivity data, that edges and contours could be detected by finding zero crossings in the light gradient by taking the Laplacian or second directional derivative, that excitatory and inhibitory receptive fields could be constructed from "DOG" functions (the difference of two Gaussians), and that the visual system used a two-dimensional convolution integral with a Gaussian prefilter as an operator for bandwidth optimation on the retinal light distribution, were more powerful than anything that had been seen up to that time.
It was as if vision research suddenly acquired its own Principia Mathematica, or perhaps General Relativity Theory, in terms of the new explanatory power Marr's theories provided. Truly an extraordinary book from an extraordinary thinker in the area of perception, vision, and the brain.
21 of 21 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars A MUST HAVE for researchers of human or machine vision! 13 Jan. 2000
By A Customer - Published on
This book has quickly become a classic since its publication in 1982. It offers an innovative theoretical approach to explain what it means when we say that we "see" something. Due to Marr's particular interests, his approach also offers, to those interested in creating machine vision that mimics human vision, potential algorithms for doing so. His breadth and depth of knowledge in mathematics, psychology, neurophysiology, and engineering allowed him to integrate the fields in a way never done before. His untimely death was a tragic loss for us all. Although this book may be a bit difficult to understand for the typical psychology student studying human visual perception, it really belongs on his/her shelf. I agree with Marr in his statement that ignorance of the necessary mathematics is inexcusable. For the typical mathematics or engineering student, the book will probably read fairly easily. Although I represent the typical psychology graduate student, it's apparent from my exchanges with my computer science friends working in artificial intelligence that the theories in this book are very well accepted in their academic circles as well.
20 of 21 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars this is an incredible book! 29 Jun. 2000
By A Customer - Published on
It is quite true: this is probably the best book on vision ever published. David Marr combined an incredible depth and width of knowledge in all neccessary fields (psychology, biology, mathematics, computer science) into this book. You will need some background in mathematics before you can fully appreciate Marr's theories. (Notably Fourier transforms) The most important thing about this book is that it represents ONE paradigm to solve problems of perception, and proves that this paradigm works in a number of cases. Unfortunately, David Marr did not live long enough to implement his paradigm in all aspects of vision. Had he still been alive, we would be looking at a much more unified field of vision research today.
7 of 8 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Insight into a computational perspective for future human and computer vision researchers 6 Oct. 2012
By Allison Del Giorno - Published on
Format:Paperback|Verified Purchase
David Marr's "Vision" presents a bold computational approach to studying vision. The book redefines lay and technical concepts in a way that set the reader up for a full understanding of his view of the way vision science should be approached and mastered.

I found the beginning of the book especially engaging, with an introduction to what human vision can do and how little we know about it. The rest of the book serves a separate purpose, namely to present an elaborate argument for the computational study of vision and Marr's own hypotheses, and interwoven proofs for both the approach and theories presented. During the introduction to Marr's thought process in Chapter 1, I did not want to put the book down. Chapter 2, on low-level representation, was a little difficult to swallow since I am more interested in the recognition and algorithmic approaches of the brain, but my patience was rewarded with the remaining chapters. The forward and afterward by those that perhaps knew Marr the best are a real treasure as well; too young to have known what an impact Marr was making the field, I appreciate the brief glimpse of this man that I was given through these two supplemental sections.

David Marr's writing style is conversational. He invites the reader to see the study of vision the way he sees it, and he uses first person narrative without hesitation. However, the book would hardly be labeled a 'quick read,' or a 'bedside book.' The technical content was a bit overwhelming at first to me, though the supplemental figures peppered throughout the book helped significantly. Marr's main thoughts were easy to follow because he heavily outlined his work not only in chapters and subheadings, but also lists and bulleted arguments embedded within the chapters. This likely stems from the ideas presented in the book itself: computational vision must be discussed with a list of stated assumptions and acknowledged constraints in order to move forward with a neurologically plausible description of the visual system.

Here is a synopsis of each of the book's chapters:

Chapter 1: The Philosophy and the Approach
This chapter is a great introduction to human vision, computational neuroscience, and Marr's own view of the computational theory behind vision. It lays the foundation for what approaches have worked in the past, the main concepts that we learned from them, and what new approaches will get us more of the information we are looking for. Marr boldly criticizes the way artificial intelligence and neuroscience have been done in the past. The core of his argument is that any explanation of vision will have to account for three levels of understanding: computational theory, representation and algorithms, and hardware implementation. There were two bold claims that stood out in this chapter: (1) "an algorithm is likely to be understood more readily by understanding the nature of the problem being solved than by examining the mechanism" (27); and (2) "the only way to figure out how to detect physical invariants is to treat it as an information-processing problem" (30). These ideas lay the foundation for the approach Marr defends in the following chapters.

Chapter 2: Representing the Image
Marr begins describing a hierarchical representation of an image, involving succeeding 'sketches' of the image and a mathematical description for generating and processing these sketches. He uses an interesting term, 'zero-crossings', that seems to be some sort of hybrid between a receptive field and an image feature. This chapter is not for technically-naïve. It begins to assume readers' knowledge of Fourier analysis and filters at a mathematical level. However, it raises important general points, such as the important image properties: intensity, size, density, orientation, and distance (81). Once we understand how the first sketch, the raw primal sketch, is formed, it can then be operated upon by selection, grouping, and discrimination to form tokens, virtual lines, and boundaries at different scales. This leads into the ideas in the next chapter:

Chapter 3: From Images to Surfaces
This chapter is the starting point for the computer vision, algorithm-hungry readers. Marr walks the reader through current evidence for and open questions in initial tasks in interpreting images. Some of the topics covered include stereopsis (resolving two differing images - right and left eyes - as one representation of the world), motion recognition (directional selectivity, apparent motion, shape from motion), several ways in which objects are formed as unique entities (contours and texture), and more. Marr does not just list current findings or psychophysical experiments supporting the existence of the brain's capabilities in these areas. He also presents many implausible and several potential algorithms that could explain how the brain could do this, or at least implementations that are inspired by the robustness of the human visual system. Many of these algorithms are focused on the conttraints of the physical world and assumptions we make. Marr asserts that in order to develop an effective algorithm, we must first have a deep understanding of the problem at hand and the purpose of the algorithm.

Chapter 4: The Immediate Representation of Visible Surfaces
The fourth chapter explains how the features generated in Chapter 3 are combined into a viewer-centric representation, termed the 2 1/2 -D sketch. The chapter starts off once again with Marr's almost scolding comments about the questions asked in computer vision ('What is an object? How do we segment an image?), and why they either have no answer or are irrelevant to a problem formulated in a much more useful manner. He spends a great deal of time reformulating the problem: going back to the earlier list of image characteristics, asking what else is needed, what the information to be represented is, and what the possible representations could look like.

Chapter 5: Representing Shapes for Recognition
Marr uses his last chapter of new content to explain how these representations come together into both shapes and a culminating 3D model of the scene. This is finally where we get to see the theory culminate into recognition and full world representation problems. It was surprising to see that his 3D representation consisted of recognition of segmented postures of objects that is based on the organization of shape descriptors. He turns the recognition problem into a summation of smaller recognition problems (hand, arm, thick torso), which is what he often avoided doing in previous chapters. While short and a bit different in philosophy from the other chapters in my opinion, it was satisfying to finally reach the high level goal of the system by the end.

Chapters 6, 7: Synopsis, Defense
Marr wraps up the book with a quick three-page synopsis of his theory, complete with a flowchart of how different representations and processes interact. The very final chapter is dialog at the Salk Institute in which he clarifies and rebuttles as a few of his colleagues question his new theories. I found this chapter to be the most interesting, as the questions asked were many of the ones I had wondered while reading, especially since this is a fairly radical way of thinking compared to the electrophysiology and empirical modeling approaches on which so many papers have been and are still based.

Overall Impression:
I have undoubtedly internalized and continue to stew on the main concepts resounding throughout the book as I pursue vision science in the next chapter of my life (graduate school). There are a few immediate problems with using the book as a general study of computational vision; it is missing key ideas such as attention, natural scene statistics, and learning, all of which play a key role in the purpose and mechanisms of vision. While the book is challenging mathematically, lacking in modern additions to the field, and too narrowly focused to completely explore human vision, this work made a huge impact on my view of and excitement for visual neuroscience. It presents a beautiful hybrid view of how human and computer vision can be mutually beneficial, where algorithmic and computational approaches to the visual system not only help us solve engineering/CS problems, but also inform us about the constraints and impressive talents of the visual system. I am guessing that when I am looking for a rekindling of motivation for vision research or a refresher on the advantages of computational neuroscience, the first book I reach for on my shelf will be Marr's.

Recommendation to Potential Buyers:
If you're thinking at all about studying vision, whether human or computer, get this book, if only to read the first chapter. Even if you don't agree with his theories or opinions, the clarity of thought and personality from Marr alone is enough to make one encouraged about where this field could go, and inspire your own direction of thinking. Readers with a fair amount of math/electrical engineering/algorithms experience will get much more out of the book. I do not feel that I was sufficiently-equipped to understand all of the concepts in the book, but still got a lot out of it, so don't be discouraged by the technical detail. Happy reading!
10 of 14 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars The best book in vision among those published until now 22 Aug. 1998
By A Customer - Published on
I have been shocked three times after reading chapter one only of this book three years ago when I firstly contacted genius David Marr in my mind. It was because of i) his comprehensive understanding about human visual perception, ii) he was undoubtly young on the contrary to his comprehensiveness, and iii) regretfully he had gone young at his vital age. Until now, it is hard for me to deny his influences in directing my studies in vision. Don't say about vision before reading this book ! This is the best book in vision among those published until now at least in my sight.
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