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Unix System Administration Handbook [Paperback]

Evi Nemeth , Garth Snyder , Scott Seebass , Trent Hein
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Table of Contents



1. Where to Start.

Suggested Background. The Sordid History of UNIX. Example UNIX Systems. Notation and Typographical Conventions. System-Specific Information. How to Use Your Manuals. Organization of the Man Pages. Man: Read Manual Pages. Essential Tasks of the System Administrator. Adding and Removing Users. Adding and Removing Hardware. Performing Backups. Installing New Software. Monitoring the System. Troubleshooting. Maintaining Local Documentation. Auditing Security. Helping Users. How to Find Files on the Internet. System Administration Under Duress. System Administration Personality Syndrome. Recommended Reading.



2. Booting and Shutting Down.

Bootstrapping. Automatic and Manual Booting. Steps in the Boot Process. Kernel Initialization. Hardware Configuration. System Processes. Operator Intervention (Manual Boot Only). Execution of Startup Scripts. Multiuser Operation. Booting Pcs. How a PC Is Different from Proprietary Hardware. The PC Boot Process. LILO: The Linux Boot Loader. Configuring LILO. The Freebsd Boot Loader. Multibooting on Pcs. Multibooting Gotchas. LILO Multiboot Configuration. Freebsd Multiboot Configuration. Booting in Single-User Mode. Solaris Single-User Mode. HP-UX Single-User Mode. Linux Single-User Mode. Freebsd Single-User Mode. Startup Scripts. Systemv-Style Startup Scripts. Solaris Startup Scripts. HP-UX Startup Scripts. Red Hat Startup Scripts. Freebsd Startup Scripts. Rebooting and Shutting down. Turning Off the Power. Shutdown: The Genteel Way to Halt the System. Halt: A Simpler Way to Shut Down. Reboot: Quick and Dirty Restart. Sending Init a TERM Signal. Telinit: Change Init's Run Level. Killing Init.



3. Rootly Powers.

Ownership of Files and Processes. The Superuser. Choosing a Root Password. Becoming Root. Su: Substitute User Identity. Sudo: A Limited Su. Other Pseudo-Users. Daemon: Owner of Unprivileged System Software. Bin: Owner of System Commands. Sys: Owner of the Kernel and Memory Images. Nobody: The Generic NFS User.



4. Controlling Processes.

Components of a Process. PID: Process ID Number. PPID: Parent PID. UID and EUID: Real and Effective User ID. GID and EGID: Real and Effective Group ID. Niceness. Control Terminal. The Life Cycle of a Process. Signals. Kill: Send Signals. Process States. Nice and Renice: Influence Scheduling Priority. Ps: Monitor Processes. Top: Monitor Processes Even Better. Runaway Processes.



5. The Filesystem.

Pathnames. Mounting and Unmounting Filesystems. The Organization of the File Tree. File Types. Regular Files. Directories. Character and Block Device Files. UNIX Domain Sockets. Named Pipes. Symbolic Links. File Attributes. The Setuid and Setgid Bits. The Sticky Bit. The Permission Bits. Viewing File Attributes. Freebsd Bonus Flags. Chmod: Change Permissions. Chown and Chgrp: Change Ownerships. Umask: Assign Default Permissions.



6. Adding New Users.

The /Etc/Passwd File. Login Name. Encrypted Password. UID Number. Default GID Number. GECOS Field. Home Directory. Login Shell. The Freebsd /Etc/Master.Passwd File. The Freebsd /Etc/Login.Conf File. The Solaris and Red Hat /Etc/Shadow File. The /Etc/Group File. Adding Users. Editing the Passwd and Shadow Files. Setting an Initial Password. Creating the User's Home Directory. Copying in the Default Startup Files. Setting the User's Mail Home. Editing the /Etc/Group File. Setting Disk Quotas. Verifying the New Login. Removing Users. Disabling Logins. Vendor-Supplied Account Management Utilities.



7. Serial Devices.

Serial Standards. Alternative Connectors. The Mini DIN-8 Variant. The DB-9 Variant. The RJ-45 Variant. The Yost Standard for RJ-45 Wiring. Hard and Soft Carrier. Hardware Flow Control. Cable Length. Serial Device Files. Software Configuration for Serial Devices. Configuration of Hardwired Terminals. The Login Process. The /Etc/Ttys and /Etc/Ttytab Files. The /Etc/Ttytype File. The /Etc/Gettytab File. The /Etc/Inittab File. The /Etc/Gettydefs File. Solaris and Sacadm. Terminal Support: The Termcap and Terminfo Databases. Special Characters and the Terminal Driver. Stty: Set Terminal Options. Tset: Set Options Automatically. How to Unwedge a Terminal. Modems. Modulation, Error Correction, and Data Compression Protocols. Dial-Out Configuration: /Etc/Phones and /Etc/Remote. Bidirectional Modems. Debugging a Serial Line. Other Common I/O Ports. Parallel Ports. USB: The Universal Serial Bus.



8. Adding a Disk.

Disk Interfaces. The SCSI Interface. The IDE Interface. Which Is Better, SCSI or IDE? Disk Geometry. An Overview of the Disk Installation Procedure. Connecting the Disk. Creating Device Entries. Formatting the Disk. Labeling and Partitioning the Disk. Establishing Logical Volumes. Creating UNIX Filesystems. Setting Up Automatic Mounting. Enabling Swapping. Fsck: Check and Repair Filesystems. Vendor Specifics. Adding a Disk to Solaris. Adding a Disk to HP-UX. Adding a Disk to Red Hat Linux. Adding a Disk to Freebsd.



9. Periodic Processes.

Cron: Schedule Commands. The Format of Crontab Files. Crontab Management. Some Common Uses for Cron. Cleaning the Filesystem. Network Distribution of Configuration Files. Rotating Log Files. Vendor Specifics.



10. Backups.

Motherhood and Apple Pie. Perform All Dumps from One Machine. Label Your Tapes. Pick a Reasonable Backup Interval. Choose Filesystems Carefully. Make Daily Dumps Fit on One Tape. Make Filesystems Smaller Than Your Dump Device. Keep Tapes Off-Site. Protect Your Backups. Limit Activity during Dumps. Check Your Tapes. Develop a Tape Life Cycle. Design Your Data for Backups. Prepare for the Worst. Backup Devices and Media. Floppy Disks. Super Floppies. CD-R and CD-RW. Removable Hard Disks. 8mm Cartridge Tapes. DAT (4mm) Cartridge Tapes. Travan Tapes. Onstream ADR. DLT. AIT. Mammoth. Jukeboxes, Stackers, and Tape Libraries. Hard Disks. Summary of Media Types. What to Buy. Setting Up an Incremental Backup Regime. Dumping Filesystems. Dump Sequences. Restoring from Dumps. Restoring Individual Files. Restoring Entire Filesystems. Dumping and Restoring for Upgrades. Using Other Archiving Programs. Tar: Package Files. Cpio: Sysv-Ish Archiving. Dd: Twiddle Bits. Volcopy: Duplicate Filesystems. Using Multiple Files on a Single Tape. Amanda. The Architecture of Amanda. Amanda Setup. The Amanda.Conf File. The Disklist File. Amanda Log Files. Amanda Debugging. File Restoration from an Amanda Backup. Alternatives to Amanda: Other Open Source Backup Packages. Commercial Backup Products. ADSM/TSM. Veritas. Legato. Other Alternatives. Recommended Reading.



11. Syslog and Log Files.

Logging Policies. Throwing Away Log Files. Rotating Log Files. Archiving Log Files. Finding Log Files. Files NOT to Manage. Vendor Specifics. Syslog: The System Event Logger. Configuring Syslogd. Red Hat Enhancements to Syslog. Freebsd Enhancements to Syslog. Config File Examples. Sample Syslog Output. Designing a Logging Scheme for Your Site. Software That Uses Syslog. Debugging Syslog. Using Syslog from Programs. Condensing Log Files to Useful Information.



12. Drivers and the Kernel.

Kernel Types. Why Configure the Kernel? Configuring a Solaris Kernel. The Solaris Kernel Area. Configuring the Kernel with /Etc/System. An Example /Etc/System File. Debugging a Solaris Configuration. Building an HP-UX Kernel. Configuring a Linux Kernel. Building the Linux Kernel Binary. Tuning Your Linux Configuration. Building a Freebsd Kernel. The Master Recipe for Building a Kernel. Audit the System's Hardware. Create a Configuration File in SYS/I386/Conf. Run Config. Run Make Depend. Build the Kernel. Install the New Kernel. Test the New Kernel. Document the New Kernel. Creating a BSD Configuration File. The Maxusers Keyword. The Options Keyword. The Config Keyword. Hardware Devices. The Pseudo-Device Keyword. A Sample Freebsd Configuration File. Tuning the Freebsd Kernel. Adding Device Drivers. Device Numbers. Adding a Solaris Device Driver. Adding a Linux Device Driver. Adding a Freebsd Device Driver. Device Files. Naming Conventions for Devices. Loadable Kernel Modules. Loadable Kernel Modules in Solaris. Loadable Kernel Modules in Linux. Loadable Kernel Modules in Freebsd. Recommended Reading.



13. TCP/IP Networking.

TCP/IP and the Internet. A Brief History Lesson. How the Internet Is Managed Today. Network Standards and Documentation. Networking Road Map. Packets and Encapsulation. The Link Layer. Packet Addressing. Ports. Address Types. IP Addresses: The Gory Details. IP Address Classes. Subnetting and Netmasks. The IP Address Crisis. CIDR: Classless Inter-Domain Routing. Address Allocation. Private Addresses and NAT. Ipv6 Addressing. Routing. Routing Tables. ICMP Redirects. ARP: The Address Resolution Protocol. DHCP: The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. DHCP Software. How DHCP Works. ISC's DHCP Server. PPP: The Point-to-Point Protocol. Addressing PPP Performance Issues. Connecting to a Network with PPP. Making Your Host Speak PPP. Controlling PPP Links. Finding a Host to Talk to. Assigning an Address. Routing. Ensuring Security. Using Terminal Servers. Using Chat Scripts. Security Issues. IP Forwarding. ICMP Redirects. Source Routing. Broadcast Pings and Other Forms of Directed Broadcast. UNIX-Based Firewalls. Virtual Private Networks. IPSEC: Secure IP. Addition of Machines to a Network. Assigning Hostnames and IP Addresses. Ifconfig: Configure Network Interfaces. Route: Configure Static Routes. Default Routes. Configuring DNS. Vendor-Specific Network Configuration. Solaris Network Configuration. Basic Network Configuration for Solaris. Configuration Examples for Solaris. DHCP Configuration for Solaris. Dynamic Reconfiguration and Tuning for Solaris. Security, Firewalls, Filtering, and NAT for Solaris. PPP Configuration for Solaris. Networking Quirks for Solaris. HP-UX Network Configuration. Basic Network Config...

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