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Understanding and Using English Grammar, Volume B [Paperback]

Betty Schrampfer Azar


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Table of Contents

Chapter 12 NOUN CLAUSES

 

12-1      Introduction

12-2      Noun Clauses Beginning with a Question Word

12-3      Noun Clauses Beginning with whether or if

12-4      Question Words Followed by Infinitives

12-5      Noun Clauses Beginning with that

12-6      Quoted Speech

12-7      Reported Speech: Verb Forms in Noun Clauses

12-8      Using the Subjunctive in Noun Clauses

12-9      Using -ever Words

 

Chapter 13 ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

 

13-1      Introduction

13-2      Adjective Clause Pronouns Used as the Subject

13-3      Adjective Clause Pronouns Used as the Object of a Verb

13-4      Adjective Clause Pronouns Used as the Object of a Preposition

13-5      Usual Patterns of Adjective Clauses

13-6      Using whose

13-7      Using where in Adjective Clauses

13-8      Using when in Adjective Clauses

13-9      Using Adjective Clauses to Modify Pronouns

13-10    Punctuating Adjective Clauses

13-11    Using Expressions of Quantity in Adjective Clauses

13-12    Using Noun + of which

13-13    Using which to Modify a Whole Sentence

13-14    Reducing Adjective Clauses to Adjective Phrases: Introduction

13-15    Changing an Adjective Clause to an Adjective Phrase

 

Chapter 14 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES, PART 1

 

14-1      Gerunds: Introduction

14-2      Using Gerunds as the Objects of Prepositions

14-3      Common Preposition Combinations Followed by Gerunds

14-4      Common Verbs Followed by Gerunds

14-5      Go + Gerund

14-6      Special Expressions Followed by -ing

14-7      Common Verbs Followed by Infinitives

14-8      Common Verbs Followed by Either Infinitives or Gerunds

14-9      Reference List of Verbs Followed by Gerunds

14-10    Reference List of Verbs Followed by Infinitives

14-11    It + Infinitive; Gerunds and Infinitives as Subjects

 

Chapter 15 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES, PART 2

 

15-1      Infinitive of Purpose: in order to

15-2      Adjectives Followed by Infinitives

15-3      Using Infinitives with too and enough

15-4      Passive and Past Forms of Infinitives and Gerunds

15-5      Using Gerunds or Passive Infinitives Following need            

15-6      Using a Possessive to Modify a Gerund

15-7      Using Verbs of Perception

15-8      Using the Simple Form after let and help

15-9      Using Causative Verbs: make, have, get

 

Chapter 16 COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

 

16-1      Parallel Structure

16-2      Using Paired Conjunctions: both . . . and; not only . . . but also; either . . . or; neither . . . nor

16-3      Combining Independent Clauses with Coordinating Conjunctions

 

Chapter 17 ADVERB CLAUSES

 

17-1      Introduction

17-2      Using Adverb Clauses to Show Cause and Effect

17-3      Expressing Contrast (Unexpected Result): Using even though

17-4      Showing Direct Contrast: while and whereas

17-5      Expressing Conditions in Adverb Clauses: if-Clauses

17-6      Adverb Clauses of Condition: Using whether or not and even if

17-7      Adverb Clauses of Condition: Using in case and in the event that

17-8      Adverb Clauses of Condition: Using unless

17-9      Adverb Clauses of Condition: Using only if

 

Chapter 18 REDUCTION OF ADVERB CLAUSES TO MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES

 

18-1      Introduction

18-2      Changing Time Clauses to Modifying Adverbial Phrases

18-3      Expressing the Idea of "During the Same Time" in Modifying Adverbial Phrases

18-4      Expressing Cause and Effect in Modifying Adverbial Phrases

18-5      Using upon + -ing in Modifying Adverbial Phrases

 

Chapter 19 CONNECTIVES THAT EXPRESS CAUSE AND EFFECT, CONTRAST, AND CONDITION

 

19-1      Using because of and due to

19-2      Using Transitions to Show Cause and Effect: therefore and consequently

19-3      Summary of Patterns and Punctuation

19-4     Other Ways of Expressing Cause and Effect: such . . . that and so . . . that

19-5      Expressing Purpose: Using so that

19-6      Showing Contrast (Unexpected Result)

19-7     Showing Direct Contrast

19-8      Expressing Conditions: Using otherwise and or (else)

19-9      Summary of Connectives: Cause and Effect, Contrast, Condition

 

Chapter 20 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AND WISHES

 

20-1      Overview of Basic Verb Forms Used in Conditional Sentences

20-2      True in The Present or Future

20-3      Untrue (Contrary to Fact) in The Present or Future

20-4      Untrue (Contrary to Fact) in The Past

20-5      Using Progressive Verb Forms in Conditional Sentences

20-6      Using "Mixed Time" in Conditional Sentences

20-7      Omitting if

20-8      Implied Conditions

20-9      Using as if / as though

20-10    Verb Forms Following wish

20-11    Using would to Make Wishes About the Future

 

APPENDIX SUPPLEMENTARY GRAMMAR UNITS

 

Unit A: BASIC GRAMMAR TERMINOLOGY

 

A-1       Subjects, Verbs, and Objects

A-2       Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases

A-3       Adjectives

A-4       Adverbs

A-5       The Verb be

A-6       Linking Verbs

 

Unit B: QUESTIONS

 

B-1       Forms of Yes/No and Information Questions

B-2       Question Words

B-3       Shortened Yes/No Questions

B-4       Negative Questions

B-5       Tag Questions

 

Unit C: CONTRACTIONS

 

Unit D: NEGATIVES

 

D-1       Using not and Other Negative Words

D-2       Avoiding Double Negatives

D-3       Beginning a Sentence with a Negative Word

 

Unit E: PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS

 

E           Preposition Combinations with Adjectives and Verbs

 

Unit F: CONNECTIVES TO GIVE EXAMPLES AND TO CONTINUE AN IDEA

F-1        Connectives to Give Examples

F-2        Connectives to Continue the Same Idea

 

Unit G: VERB FORM REVIEW EXERCISES

 

INDEX

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