The question of how a policy is made or why things simply stay the same in politics has long occupied the minds of political observers. This book explores the way in which very particular political actors made a difference to policy and politics. The analytical focus is on think-tanks, hybrid creatures which exist somewhere in the spaces between government, business and academia. Think-tanks played a role in re-making the British Labour Party and German Social Democrats as 'Third Way' parties in the 1990s and 2000s. Think-tanks also helped to mould the 'workfare state' which is now characteristic of both countries. The book offers an insight into how think-tanks influenced decision-makers and how they were used by politicians and other elites to circumvent parliament and outmanoeuvre political parties. Based on over 50 interviews with policy-makers, civil servants, analysts from think-tanks and party politicians, this book is an up-to-date overview of both countries' think-tank landscapes.