The rise and fall of the Templar Order constitutes a fundamental and decisive episode in medieval history, and the destruction of the Order constitutes a pivotal point that fundamentally altered the direction of society. While much is known about the history of the Templar Order in France, home of its chief commandery in Paris, and in the Latin States of the Middle East, their contribution to events on the Iberian peninsula has until now remained obscure and unexplored. Renowned Templar scholar Juan Garcia Atienza revels here the important role the Templars played in the Reconquista that saw the Moors driven out of Spain and demonstrates the great influence the exerted in the Kingdoms of Castille and Navarre and the territories of Catalonia and Aragon. He examines the mysterious connections between the Templars and the Cathars and troubadours as well as the mystery surrounding the location of all the Templar enclaves in the Iberian Peninsula. He also unveils the important role the Templars had as teachers of the Spanish king James I, known as the conqueror, whose attempt to establish a universal theocratic empire may have been a reflection of Templar ambitions, and explores the Order's suppression in Spain and how it survived in Portugal by simply changing its name.