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The Idea Factory: Bell Labs and the Great Age of American Innovation
 
 

The Idea Factory: Bell Labs and the Great Age of American Innovation [Kindle Edition]

Jon Gertner
5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (4 customer reviews)

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Review

"Gertner reveals the complicated humanity at work behind the scenes and provides unprecedented insight on some of history's most important scientific and technological advances. Packed with anecdotes and trivia and written in clear and compelling prose, this story of a cutting-edge and astonishingly robust intellectual era--and one not without its controversies and treachery--is immensely enjoyable."--"Kirkus"

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The definitive history of America's greatest incubator of technological innovation

 

In this first full portrait of the legendary Bell Labs, journalist Jon Gertner takes readers behind one of the greatest collaborations between business and science in history. Officially the research and development wing of AT&T, Bell Labs made seminal breakthroughs from the 1920s to the 1980s in everything from lasers to cellular elephony, becoming arguably the best laboratory for new ideas in the world. Gertner's riveting narrative traces the intersections between science, business, and society that allowed a cadre of eccentric geniuses to lay the foundations of the information age, offering lessons in management and innovation that are as vital today as they were a generation ago.



Product details

  • Format: Kindle Edition
  • File Size: 1761 KB
  • Print Length: 446 pages
  • Page Numbers Source ISBN: 1594203288
  • Publisher: Penguin Books; Reprint edition (15 Mar 2012)
  • Sold by: Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0143122797
  • ISBN-13: 978-0143122791
  • ASIN: B005GSZIWG
  • Text-to-Speech: Enabled
  • X-Ray:
  • Average Customer Review: 5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (4 customer reviews)
  • Amazon Bestsellers Rank: #172,728 Paid in Kindle Store (See Top 100 Paid in Kindle Store)
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Most Helpful Customer Reviews
2 of 2 people found the following review helpful
By Robert Morris TOP 500 REVIEWER
Format:Paperback
As I began to read this book, I was reminded of the approach that Frank Moss takes in The Sorcerers and Their Apprentices: How the Digital Magicians of the MIT Media Lab Are Creating the Innovative Technologies That Will Transform Our Lives. Both he and Jon Gertner provide a wealth of historical information about the given enterprise while focusing on its leadership, its major contributions, and the significance of those contributions. A brief history of the MIT Media Lab and of Bell Laboratories can be obtained from Wikipedia. I suggest that the former be checked out before reading Moss's book and the latter before reading Gertner's.

The most productive years during the history of Bell Telephone Laboratories were between the lkate-1930s and the mid-70s, a period during which Bell Labs was the most innovative scientific organization in the world. According to Gertner, "It was arguably among the world's most important commercial organizations as well, with countless entrepreneurs building their businesses upon the Labs foundational inventions, which were often shared for a modest fee."

Its innovation breakthroughs include radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, information theory, the UNIX operating system, the C programming language, and the C++ programming language. Seven Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories prior to the year of the award: Clinton J. Davisson shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for demonstrating the wave nature of matter (1937); John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, and William Shockley received the Nobel Prize in Physics for inventing the first transistors (1956); Philip W.
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5.0 out of 5 stars Superbly written! 5 Feb 2014
Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
Fascinating account on how to make great minds collaborate. Thoroughly researched. And the writing is truly captivating; I kept telling myself to put it down because I had to get some sleep (but didn't).
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5.0 out of 5 stars Inventions underpinning the 21st Century 19 Jan 2014
Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
Jon Gertner's book is the story of the rise, growth, and eventual winding down of Bell Labs, one of the greatest research institutions of all times. It would take a massive multi-volume history to cover everything that Bell Labs did, so the author concentrates on on the period between the 1930s and the 1970s, and follows some the the key players and their research through that period.

However, he also explains very clearly the political and economic decisions that enabled AT&T to support its huge R&D division over such an extended period. He explains how the problems facing AT&T as the USA's monopoly long distance carrier, operating over inter-continental distances, combined to form the unique, and highly productive, blend of scientists and engineers that was the Lab. This discussion is essential to understanding how Bell labs was able to achieve what it did, and the author handles the subject matter very clearly.

The book covers Bell Labs' seminal work on multiplexing, information theory, transistors, lasers, fiber optics, communications satellites, the cosmic microwave background, and mobile phone networks, among other things. Not everything Bell Labs did was a resounding success, though. There were failures as well as successes. For instance, in the early 1960s the Labs was instrumental in developing the Picturephone. This device turned out to be a major flop and an embarrassment with minimal sales after a lot of money and reputations had been staked on its success!

The book is well written, informative and easy to read. If you want discover how the basic inventions that underpin the defining technologies of the 21st Century were made, then this book is a must read.
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Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
This is a must read for an engineer, scientist or physicist of any age. The Bell labs were structured as a multi-discipline organisation unique in its day and never since emulated. The inventions created in this environment underpin everything we take for granted today.
Solid state components, silicon chips, lasers, microwaves, solar panels, fibre optics, cellular phone networks, modems, subscriber trunk dialling, Satellite communications.........
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Amazon.com: 4.5 out of 5 stars  160 reviews
139 of 146 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars The life and times of a great American institution 16 Mar 2012
By A. Jogalekar - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
During its fifty odd years of existence, Bell Labs was the most productive scientific laboratory on the planet. It won seven Nobel Prizes, contributed innumerable practical ideas underlying our modern way of life and, whether by accident or design, also managed to make some spectacular basic scientific discoveries that expanded our understanding of the universe. How did it possibly accomplish all this? In this authoritative and intensely engaging book, Jon Gertner tells us exactly how.

Gertner's book about this great American institution excels in three ways. Firstly, it describes in detail the genesis of what was then an unlikely research institution. Until then most communication related work was considered to be squarely within the domain of engineering. Bell Labs arose from a need to improve communications technology pioneered by its parent organization AT&T. But the real stroke of genius was to realize the value that basic scientists - mainly physicists and chemists - could bring to this endeavor along with engineers. This was largely the vision of two men - Frank Jewett and Mervin Kelly. Jewett who was the first president of Bell Labs had the foresight to recruit promising young physicists who were proteges of his friend Robert Millikan, a Nobel Prize winning physicist and president of Caltech. Kelly in turn was Millikan's student and was probably the most important person in the history of the laboratory. It was Kelly who hired the first brilliant breed of physicists and engineers including William Shockley, Walter Brittain, Jim Fisk and Charles Townes and who would set the agenda for future famous discoveries. During World War II Bell gained a reputation for taking on challenging military projects like radar; at the end of the war it handled almost a thousand of these. The war made the benefits of supporting basic science clear. It was Kelly again who realized that the future of innovation lay in electronics. To this end he moved Bell from its initial location in New York City to an expansive wooded field in New Jersey near Murray Hill and recruited even more brilliant physicists, chemists and engineers. This added further fuel to the fire of innovation started in the 1930s, and from then on the laboratory never looked back.

Secondly, Gertner gives a terrific account of the people who populated the buildings in Murray Hill and their discoveries which immortalized the laboratory. Kelly instituted a policy of hiring only the best minds, and it did not matter whether these were drawn from industry, academia or the government. In some cases he would go to great lengths to snare a particularly valuable scientist, offering lucrative financial incentives along with unprecedented freedom to explore ideas. This led to a string of extraordinary discoveries which Gertner describes in rich and accessible detail. One feature of the book that stands out is Gertner's efforts in describing the actual science instead of skimming over it; for instance he pays due attention to the revolution in materials chemistry that was necessary for designing semiconductor devices. The sheer number of important things Bell scientists discovered or invented beggars belief; even a limited but diverse sampling includes the first transatlantic cable, transistors, UNIX, C++, photovoltaic cells, error-corrected communication, charged-coupled devices and statistical process control that now forms the basis of the six-sigma movement. The scientists were a fascinating, diverse lot and Gertner brings a novelist's eye in describing them. There was Bill Shockley, the undoubtedly brilliant, troubled, irascible physicist whose sin of competing against his subordinates led to his alienation at the lab. Gertner provides a fast-paced account of those heady days in 1947 when John Bardeen, Brittain and Shockley invented the transistor, the truly world-changing invention that is Bell Labs's greatest claim to fame. Then there was Claude Shannon, the quiet, eccentric genius who rode his unicycle around the halls and invented information theory which essentially underlies the entire modern digital world. Described also are Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, whose work with an antenna that was part of the first communications satellite - also built by Bell - led to momentous evidence supporting the Big Bang. The influence of the laboratory was so formative that even the people who left Bell Labs later went on to greatness; several of these such as future energy secretary Steven Chu joined elite academic institutions and won Nobel Prizes (Bardeen won two). It's quite clear that the cast of characters that passed through the institution will probably never again be concentrated in one place.

But perhaps the most valuable part of the book deals not with the great scientific personalities or their discoveries but with the reasons that made Bell tick. When Kelly moved the lab to Murray Hill, he designed its physical space in ways that would have deep repercussions for productive thought and invention. Most crucially, he interspersed the basic and applied scientists together without any separation. That way even the purest of mathematicians was forced to interact with and learn from the most hands-on engineer. This led to an exceptional cross-fertilization of ideas, an early precursor of what we call multidisciplinary research. Labs and offices were divided by soundproof steel partitions that could be moved to expand and rearrange working spaces. The labs were all lined along a very long, seven-hundred foot corridor where everybody worked with their doors open. This physical layout ensured that when a scientist or engineer walked to the cafeteria, he or she would "pick up ideas like a magnet picks up iron filings". Other rules only fed the idea factory. For instance you were not supposed to turn away a subordinate if he came to ask you for advice. This led to the greenest of recruits learning at the feet of masters like Bardeen or Shannon. Most importantly, you were free to pursue any idea or research project that you wanted, free to ask anyone for advice, free to be led where the evidence pointed. Of course this extraordinary freedom was made possible by the immense profits generated by the monopolistic AT&T, but the heart of the matter is that Bell's founders recognized the importance of focusing on long-term goals rather than short-term profits. They did this by gathering bright minds under one roof and giving them the freedom and time to pursue their ideas. And as history makes clear, this policy led not only to fundamental discoveries but to practical inventions greatly benefiting humanity. Perhaps some of today's profitable companies like Google can lift a page from AT&T and channel more of their profits into basic, broadly defined, curiosity-driven research.

Gertner's highly readable book leaves us with a key message. As America struggles to stay competitive in science and technology, Bell Labs still provides the best example of what productive industrial research can accomplish. There are many lessons that modern organizations can learn from it. One interesting lesson arising from the cohabitation of research and manufacturing under the same roof is that it might not be healthy beyond a point to isolate one from the other, a caveat that bears directly on current offshoring policies. It is important to have people involved in all aspects of R&D talking to each other. But the greatest message of all from the story of this remarkable institution is simple and should not be lost in this era of short-term profits, layoffs and declining investment in fundamental research: the best way to generate ideas still is to hire the best minds, put them all in one place and give them the freedom, time and money to explore, think and innovate. You will be surprised how much long-term benefit you get from that policy. As they say, mighty trees from little acorns grow, and it's imperative to nurture those little seeds.
31 of 32 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Scientists, tinkerers, managers, and HR professionals will find plenty of inspiration here 19 Mar 2012
By Ishaan Dang - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
Fast Company editor Gertner traces the history of Bell Labs through more than five decades of brilliant thinking and innovation. From the transistor to lasers to satellites and cellular technology, Bell Labs and its scientists invented machines and techniques that were consistently prescient, and ultimately presaged all of modern communications. Housed first in New York City and then on a sprawling campus in New Jersey, Bell Labs became a haven for creative and technical minds due to a unique culture of encouraged interdisciplinary research, (mostly) friendly competition and inspired leadership. Tremendously complex ideas (information theory) and intensely experimental accomplishments (fiber optics) were possible in part because of the unrivaled freedom, time and funding Bell Labs provided. In addition, pressing social, political and economic issues provided necessary infrastructures for advances in engineering and mechanics. The author describes the atmosphere as welcoming creativity rather than insisting on rigid development; intellectually, there was an indistinct line between art and science. By tracing the history of Bell Labs through the biographies of several of its founding thinkers, including Mervin Kelly, Bill Shockley and Claude Shannon, Gertner reveals the complicated humanity at work behind the scenes and provides unprecedented insight on some of history's most important scientific and technological advances. Packed with anecdotes and trivia and written in clear and compelling prose, this story of a cutting-edge and astonishingly robust intellectual era--and one not without its controversies and treachery--is immensely enjoyable.
40 of 44 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Great Book About an Amazing Place and Time 15 Mar 2012
By Book Fanatic - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
This is a wonderful book. It's a history/biography of some of the most important innovations and people who came out of Bell Labs during its peak in the middle to latter part of the 20th Century. Gertner does a good job of story telling and I found the book fascinating and a little sad at the same time. It is not likely something like this will be repeated again.

If you are looking for self-help books on how to create or innovate, you won't find it here. This is a history of the labs and its people. Gertner does describe what he thinks contributes to great ideas in this book from a broad historical perspective and how it came together at Bell Labs.

If you like biographies and history or even just reading about scientific and technological achievement, I think you will love this book. It's 360 pages long and tells a great story. It's hard to believe how much our current electronic world owes to Bell Labs. These were game changing ideas and inventions, not just incremental achievements like one finds with the latest new and improved version of a device these days.

The book description above on Amazon does an excellent job of describing what is inside this book. I highly recommend you give that description and the book itself a read.
49 of 62 people found the following review helpful
2.0 out of 5 stars Disappointing 22 April 2012
By Bob Metzler - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
From the description, I had expected more. Bell Labs was the great R&D organization for many decades and I thought that knowing more details and stories about them would be fun since my career was in technology. The author concentrates more on the managers than the scientists and engineers & that makes pretty dry reading. Also, the author is clearly not a technical person and while he doesn't get the technology descriptions exactly wrong, they're not exactly right, either. I finally bailed out with a couple of chapters still to go.
20 of 24 people found the following review helpful
2.0 out of 5 stars Disappointed 20 Jan 2013
By truthbetold - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
I spent most of my technical career at Bell labs between the late sixties until the mid-nineties. Over half of that time I worked in the fundamental research area and the other half a mixture of government contract work and administrative work. Virtually all the people detailed in this book who were still around when I started were known to me and one or two I at least crossed paths with personally. In particular, I began my career working directly for Bill Pfann for a number of years, a wonderful man and brilliant materials scientist, in further adapting his Nobel-quality work ( unfortunately there is no Nobel prize for Materials Research!) to mixed metallic as well as organic compounds. It is no exaggeration to say that if it were not for Pfann's breakthroughs in purifying semiconductors and developing techniques for accurate levels of doping, no transistor would ever have gone past the laboratory experimental phase.

To the extent that the author traces the Lab's beginnings and the dozen or so major players both in their scientific and engineering contributions as well as their later equally valuable administrative achievements it is an excellent, detailed ( often a bit more detail than the reader really needs to have) and well-researched history. The shortcoming is that the author concentrates so extensively (essentially exclusively) on these dozen or so "superstars" he has left no time or space for even a fair sampling of many of the "second-tier" scientists and engineers, those whose brilliant work never got Nobel Prize headlines but without whose contributions no "superstar" discoveries would have progressed beyond initial theoretical curiosities. My own work represented a very, very modest level of achievement compared to the many outstanding people I had the privilege and pleasure to work with. I missed not reading something about the many people whose exciting work all around me made coming to work every day a bright prospect.

For those who are content with the big picture, this is the book to read. But for those of us who labored alongside the many inspired, unsung colleagues we shared that environment with, and for those who understand that scientific and technical achievment is impossible without the essential and dedicated support and ideas of the many who work with, and for, the select few, the full story of the Bell Labs culture and camaraderie has yet to be written.

May I say to all those folks - thanks guys -it was a pleasure.
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“I can always hire mathematicians,” he once said at the height of his fame, “but they can’t hire me.” &quote;
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One of Morton’s disciples, a Bell Labs development scientist named Eugene Gordon, points out that there were two corollaries to Morton’s view of innovation: The first is that if you haven’t manufactured the new thing in substantial quantities, you have not innovated; the second is that if you haven’t found a market to sell the product, you have not innovated.34 &quote;
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Edison’s genius lay in making new inventions work, or in making existing inventions work better than anyone had thought possible. But how they worked was to Edison less important. &quote;
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