This is basically a low-chronology synthesis on the history of the northern kingdom of Israel.
Of course Finkelstein believes the United Monarchy of David and Solomon is a fiction of the Judean monarchy after the northern kingdom was dissolved by the Assyrians. The Israelites developed statehood not on the basis of a model provided by a political power centered first in Judah, but independently from and before the latter.
Much of what is here can be found in Finkelstein & Silberman 2001 and Finkelstein & Silberman 2006, but Finkelstein ignores Judah in this work and focuses on the history and achievements of the north, suppressed both in the Hebrew Bible and much of modern scholarship. The work is also documented.
Very important for this archeological synthesis are a variety of new radiocarbon dates, correlated with critical analysis of biblical and nonbiblical texts, especially the Amarna letters and the list of Sheshonq's subjugated cities in Palestine and Transjordan in the 10th century, which Finkelstein associates with Saulide activity (the biblical chronological data being unreliable).
The development of the Israelite state represents the fruition of a pattern of aggressive expansion by strongmen notably documented in the Amarna letters, and repeated throughout history after the decline of the hegemony of a major power in the region (e.g., Egypt). The Omrides were the first to achieve full statehood in the 9th century.
Finkelstein also explains the development of two biblical traditions: the Jacob patriarchal traditions and the exodus tradition. These are both stories of northern provenience. I was not convinced of his explanation of the exodus, however, which he connects (as a northern tradition prior to its Judahite appropriation) to the Sheshonq campaign and freedom from Egypt traditions from the lowlands. But he does show the problems with alternative attempts to pinpoint it in history. Still, in my view, the best theory remains that of D. B. Redford.
Time and future discoveries will tell whether Finkelstein's view will prevail. An excellent, straightforwardly argued book.