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Social Psychology: Third Edition [Paperback]

Eliot R. Smith , Diane M. Mackie
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Table of Contents

Preface. How To Use This Book. Chapter 1. What is Social Psychology? A Definition of Social Psychology. The Scientific Study of the Effects of Social and Cognitive Processes on the Way Individuals Perceive, Influence, and Relate to Others. Historical Trends and Current Themes in Social Psychology. Social Psychology Becomes an Empirical Science. Social Psychology Splits From General Psychology Over What Causes Behavior. The Rise of Nazism Shapes the Development of Social Psychology. Growth and Integration. How the Approach of This Book Reflects an Integrative Perspective. Two Fundamental Axioms of Social Psychology. Three Motivational Principles. Three Processing Principles. Common Processes, Diverse Behaviors. Plan of the Book. Summary. Chapter 2. Asking and Answering Research Questions. A Note to the Student on How to Use This Chapter. Research Questions and the Role of Theory. Origins of Research Questions. What is a Scientific Theory? Testing Theories: From Theory to Research. Construct Validity and Approaches to Measurement. Internal Validity and Types of Research Design. External Validity and Research Populations and Settings. Evaluating Theories: The Bottom Line. The Role of Ethics and Values in Research. Being Fair to Participants. Being Helpful to Society. Concluding Comments. Summary. Chapter 3. Perceiving Individuals. Forming First Impressions: Cues, Interpretations, and Inferences. The Raw Materials of First Impressions. Interpreting Cues. Characterizing the Behaving Person: Correspondent Inferences. When is a Correspondent Inference Justified? Beyond First Impressions: Systematic Processing. Causal Attributions. Using Attributions to Correct First Impressions. Putting It All Together: Forming Complex Impressions. The Accuracy of Considered Impressions. The Impact of Impressions: Using, Defending, and Changing Impressions. Impressions and Judgments. Defending Impressions. Dealing With Inconsistent Information. Concluding Comments. Summary. Chapter 4. The Self. Constructing the Self-Concept: What We Know About Ourselves. Sources of the Self-Concept. Learning About Self and Others: The Same or Different? Multiple Selves. Putting It All Together: Constructing a Coherent Self-Concept. Cultural Differences in the Self-Concept. Constructing Self-Esteem: How We Feel About Ourselves. Balancing Accurate Self-Knowledge and Self-Enhancement. Evaluating Personal Experiences: Some Pain but Mainly Gain. Social Comparisons: Better or Worse Than Others? Why Self-Enhance? Self-Esteem in Cultural Context. Effects of the Self: Processes of Self-Regulation.The Self and Thoughts About Ourselves and Others. The Self and Emotions: For Me or Against Me? The Self in Action: Regulating Behavior. Temptations and Other Threats to Self-Regulation. Taking Accounts of Other People's Standards. Defending the Self: Coping With Stresses, Inconsistencies, and Failures. Threats to the Well-Being of the Self. Defending Against Threat: Emotion-Focused Coping. Attacking Threat Head-On: Problem-Focused Coping. How to Cope? Concluding Comments. Summary. Chapter 5. Perceiving Groups. Targets of Prejudice: Social Groups. Social Categorization: Dividing the World into Social Groups. Forming Impressions of Groups: Establishing Stereotypes. The Content of Stereotypes. Seeking the Motives behind Stereotyping. Motives for Forming Stereotypes: Mastery through Summarizing Personal Experiences. Motives for Forming Stereotypes: Connectedness to Other. Moving for Forming Stereotypes: Justifying Inequalities. Using Stereotypes: From Preconceptions to Prejudice. Activation of Stereotypes. Measuring Stereotypes and Prejudice. Impact of Stereotypes on Judgments and Actions. Trying to Overcome Stereotype Effects. Beyond Simple Activation: Effects of Stereotypes on Considered Judgments. Changing Stereotypes: Overcoming Bias to Reduce Prejudice. Barriers to Stereotype Change. Overcoming Stereotype Defenses: The Kind of Contact that Works. Concluding Comments. Summary. Chapter 6. Social Identity. Categorizing Oneself as a Group Member. Learning About Our Groups. Accessibility of Group Memberships. Me, You, and Them: Effects of Social Categorization. "I" Becomes "We": Social Categorization and the Self. Others Become "We": Social Categorization and the In-Group. Others Become "They": Social Categorization and the Out-Group. When Group Memberships Are Negative. Effects of Stigmatized Group Memberships. Defending Individual Self-Esteem. Individual Mobility: Escaping Negative Group Membership. Social Creativity: Redefining Group Memberships as Positive. Social Change: Changing the Intergroup Context. One Goal, Many Strategies. Concluding Comments. Summary. Chapter 7. Attitudes and Attitude Change. Attitudes and Their Origins. Measuring Attitudes.Attitude Formation: Why and How? Superficial and Systematic Routes to Persuasion: From Snap Judgments to Considered Opinions. Superficial Processing: Persuasion Shortcuts. Systematic Processing of Persuasive Communications. Superficial and Systematic Processing: Which Strategy, When? Defending Attitudes: Resisting Persuasion. Gathering Defenses: Forewarning, Forearming, and Arguing Back. Subliminal Persuasion. Concluding Comments. Summary. Chapter 8. Attitudes and Behavior. Changing Attitudes with Actions. From Action to Attitude via Superficial Processing. Cognitive Dissonance: Changing Attitudes to Justify Behavior. Guiding Actions with Attitudes. How Attitudes Guide Behavior. When Do Attitudes Influence Action? Concluding Comments. Summary. Chapter 9. Groups, Norms, and Conformity. Conformity to Social Norms. The Formation of Social Norms. Public Versus Private Conformity. The Dual Functions of Conformity to Norms: Mastery and Connectedness. Expecting Consensus. The Dual Functions of Conformity to Norms. Whose Consensus? The Impact of Reference Groups. How Groups Form Norms: Processes of Social Influence. Group Compromise: Taking the Middle Ground. Group Polarization: Going to Normative Extremes. Explaining Polarized Norm Formation. Conformity Pressure: Undermining True Consensus. When Consensus Seeking Goes Awry. Consensus Seeking at Its Worst: Groupthink. Minority Influence: The Value of Dissent. Successful Minority Influence. Processes of Minority and Majority Influence. Beyond Minority Influence: Using Norms to Strengthen Consensus. Concluding Comments. Summary. Chapter 10. Norms and Behavior. Norms: Effective Guides for Social Behavior. How Norms Guide Behavior. Why Norms Guide Behavior So Effectively. Deindividuation: Making Group Norms More Salient. The Norm of Reciprocity: Treating Others as They Treat You. Returning Favors. The Norm of Reciprocity for Concessions. The Norm of Commitment: Keeping Your Promises. The Low-Ball Technique. Long-Term Consequences of Commitment. The Norm of Obedience: Submitting to Authority. Milgram’s Studies of Obedience. Attempting to Explain Obedience: Was it the Time, the Place, the People? The Norm of Obedience to Authority. Normative Trade-Offs: The Pluses and Minuses of Obedience. Rebellion and Resistance: Fighting Back. Reactance: Enough is Enough. Systematic Processing: Thinking Things Through. Using Norms Against Norms. Putting It All Together: Multiple Guides for Behavior. Both Attitudes and Norms Influence Behavior. When Attitudes and Norms Conflict: Accessibility Determines Influence. Concluding Comments. Summary. Chapter 11. Liking and Loving. Initial Attraction. Physical Attractiveness. Positive Interaction. Liking, Similarity, and Interaction: Mutually Reinforcing Processes. From Acquaintance to Friend: Relationship Development. Exchanges of Rewards: What’s In It for Me? Self-Disclosure. Close Relationships. Research on Close Relationships. Cognitive Interdependence: The Partner Becomes Part of the Self. Behavioral Interdependence: Transformations in Exchange. Affective Interdependence: Intimacy and Commitment. Types of People, Types of Relationships. Effects of Relationships. Romantic Love and Sexuality. Passionate Feelings. Sexual Attitudes and Behavior. Sex in the Context of a Relationship. When Relationships Go Wrong. Interdependence and Conflicts: Seeds of Trouble. Resources for Handling Conflict: Relationship.Maintenance. Conflict Processes. Break-Up and Aftermath. Concluding Comments. Summary. Chapter 12. Interaction in Groups. The Mere Presence of Others: Effects of Minimal Interdependence. Social Facilitation: Improvement and Impairment. Crowding: The Presence of Lots of Others. Performance in Face-to-Face Groups: Interaction and Interdependence. How Groups Change: Stages of Group Development. Getting the Job Done: Group Performance. Leadership. Group Communication. Concluding Comments. Summary. Chapter 13. Aggression and Conflict. Aggression, Conflict, and Human Nature. Defining Conflict and Aggression. Origins of Aggression. Interpersonal Aggression. Studying Aggression. What Triggers Aggression? Norms Promoting and Restraining Aggression. To Hurt or Not to Hurt: Putting It All Together. Intergroup Conflict. Sources of Intergroup Conflict: The Battle for Riches and Respect. Escalating Conflict: Communication and Interaction that Make Things Worse. Perceptions in Conflict: What Else Could You Expect From Them? "Final Solutions": Eliminating the Out-Group. Resolving Conflict and Reducing Aggression. Altering Perceptions and Reactions. Resolving Conflict Through Negotiation. Intergroup Cooperation: Changing Social Identity. Concluding Comments. Summary. Chapter 14. Helping and Cooperation. When Do People Help? Is Help Needed and Deserved? Should I Help? Why Do People Help? Helping for Mastery and Connectedness. Biologically Driven Helping: Is Helping in Our Genes? Helping for Mastery: The Personal Rewards and Costs of Helping. Helping for Connectedness: Empathy and Altruism. Helping for Connectedness: Social Identification and Cooperation. Role of Superficial or Systematic Processing in Helping and Cooperation. The Impact of Processing. Personality Differences in Helping. Prosocial Behavior in Society. Help that Helps; Help that Hurts. Increasing Prosocial Behavior in Society. Concluding Comments. Summary. Epilogue. Core Principles of Social Psychology. How the Principles Interrelate. An Invitation to Social Psychology . Glossary . References. Author Index . Subject Index

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