It seems rather impertinent to comment on poems such as Celan's when I've only been reading them for a short time. I only do so to encourage anyone who has heard about them, to read them. Celan was a poet who translated the work of Rimbaud, Emily Dickinson and Osip Mandelshtam: and this list gives some indication of where his debts, as a poet, might lie; and may also indicate the breadth of reference that his poetry utlises. Celan was far from being a national poet, both for historical reasons -- he wrote in German, but was not from Germany -- and for poetic reasons: and is neither a poet who is only for German readers. (His influence, to give one example, can be seen in the later poetry of the "late Modernist" J.H. Prynne.)
Michael Hamburger's bi-lingual edition (with German on one page, and translation into English poetry on the other) gives the reader an introduction to Celan.