PART I: INTRODUCTION. 1. Ways of Knowing. The Place of Values in Social Science Research. Contestability in Social and Physical Sciences. Casual Observation. Toward a Science of Social Behavior. Summary. 2. Evaluating Social Science Theories and Research. The Purposes of Research in the Social Sciences. Criteria for Evaluating Social Science Research. Maximizing Construct Validity. Maximizing Internal Validity. Maximizing External Validity. Summary. 3. Ethical Principles. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study. The Belmont Report. Focus on Ethical Issues in Experimental Research: Deception. Focus on Ethical Issues in Quasi?Experimental Research: Confidentiality and Anonymity. Focus on Ethical Issues in Nonexperimental Research: Participant Observation. The Ethics of Not Doing a Study. Case Study of Ethical Review Process. Closing Thoughts. Summary. PART II: MEASUREMENT. 4. Fundamentals of Measurement. From Abstract Concepts to Concrete Representations. Operational Definitions Are Necessary but Rarely Sufficient. Measurement Presupposes a Clearly Defined Construct. Components of an Observed Score Reliability. 5. Modes of Measurement. Modes of Direct Questioning. Other Modes of Measurement. Summary. 6. Single-Item Measure in Questionnaires. Outline of Procedures in Questionnaire Research. Question Content. Question Wording. Question Sequence. Special Techniques for Sensitive Content. Interviewing. Summary. 7. Scaling and Multiple-Item Measures. Advantages of Multiple-Item Measures. Levels of Measurement. Rating Scales for Quantifying Individual Judgements. Developing Multiple- Items Scales. Three Types of Multiple-Items Scales. Scaling and Levels of Measurement. Summary. PART III: SAMPLING. 8. Fundamentals of Sampling. Some Basic Definitions and Concepts. Nonprobabilty Sampling. Probability Sampling. Concluding Remarks About the Two Kinds of Sampling. Sampling Elements Other Than People. Summary. 9. Probability Sampling Methods. Basic Probability Sampling Methods. Sampling Error. Two Examples of Sampling Plans for National Survey. Summary. 10. Experience Sampling. Applications of the Experience Sampling Method. Sampling Strategies and Procedures. Measurement Strategies and Procedures. Summary. PART IV: SOCIAL RESEARCH STRATEGIES. 11. Randomized Experiments. Controlling and Manipulating Variables. Random Assignment. Independent Variables that Vary Within and Between Participants. Threats to Internal Validity. Construct Validity of Independent Variables in a Randomized Experiment. Alternative Experimental Designs. Strengths and Weaknesses of Randomized Experiments. Summary. 12. The Laboratory Setting. When Should The Laboratory Be Used? Types of Laboratory Study. Artifact and Artificiality. Elements of Laboratory Study. Summary. 13. Nonrandomized Designs. Examples of Nonrandomized Designs. Alternative Nonrandomized Designs. Summary. 14. Applied Research. Varieties of Applied Research. Evaluation Research. the Politics of Applied and Evaluation Research. Can We Afford Not to Do Applied Research? Summary. 15. Observational Archival Research. Naturalness in Research. Observation. Archival Research. Summary. 16. Qualitative Research. Narrative Analysis. Focus Groups. Oral History. Participant. Summary. PART V: ANALYSIS AND WRITING. 17. Data Management and Exploration. The Data Matrix. The Codebook. Statistical Software. Exploring Data. Summary. 18. Estimates and Tests of Association. Associations Between Dichotomous Variables. Inferring Associations in Populations from Sample Data. Associations Between Continuous Variables. Associations Between a Continuous Variable and a Dichotomous Variable. Interpreting Associations. Partial Associations. Summary. 19. Reviewing Research Reports and Literatures. Reviewing Research Reports. Searching the Literature. Reviewing the Literature. Reviewing the Literature ? ?Traditionally? and Meta-Analytically. Basic Meta-Analytic Tests: combing and Comparing Studies. Summary. 20. Writing the Research Report. Some Preliminary Considerations. Introduction. Method. Results. Discussion. Summary or Abstract. References. Appendix. Some Suggestions on Procedure and Style. Where to Find Additional Guidance. Summary. Bibliography. Author Index. Subject Index.