Preface; 1. Basic properties of radiation, atmospheres and oceans; 2. Basic state variables; 3. Interaction of radiation with matter; 4. Formulation of radiative transfer problems; 5. Approximate solutions of prototype problems; 6. Accurate numerical solutions of prototype problems; 7. Emission-dominated radiative processes; 8. Radiative transfer in spectrally-complex media; 9. Solar radiation driving photochemistry and photobiology; 10. The role of radiation in climate; Appendix 1. A primer on radiative transfer: absorption and scattering opacity; Appendix 2. Stokes parameters, Poincare sphere, and the Mueller matrix; Appendix 3. Nomenclature: glossary of symbols; Appendix 4. Principle of reciprocity for the bidirectional reflectance; Appendix 5. Isolation of the azimuth-dependence; Appendix 6. The streaming term in spherical geometry; Appendix 7. Reflectance and transmittance of the invariant intensity (I;n2); Appendix 8. Scaling transformation for anisotropic scattering; Appendix 9. Reciprocity, duality and effects of surface reflection; Appendix 10. Removal of overflow problems in the intensity formulas.