Part 1. Concepts and Tools. 1. Introduction. The Book's Website. Pedagogical Approach. Getting Ready to Learn about SEM. Characteristics of SEM. Widespread Enthusiasm, but with a Cautionary Tale. Family History and a Reminder about Context. Extended Latent Variable Families. Plan of the Book. Summary. 2. Fundamental Concepts. Multiple Regression. Partial Correlation and Part Correlation. Other Bivariate Correlations. Logistic Regression. Statistical Tests. TOPIC BOX 2.1. The "Big Five" Misinterpretations of Statistical Significance. Bootstrapping. Summary. Recommended Readings. Exercises. 3. Data Preparation. Forms of Input Data. Positive Definiteness. TOPIC BOX 3.1. Causes of Nonpositive Definiteness and Solutions. Data Screening. Selecting Good Measures and Reporting about Them. Summary. Recommended Readings. Exercises. 4. Computer Tools. Ease of Use, Not Suspension of Judgment. Human-Computer Interaction. TOPIC BOX 4.1. Graphical Isn't Always Better. Core SEM Programs and Book Website Resources. Other Computer Tools. Summary. Recommended Readings. Part 2. Core Techniques. 5. Specification Steps of SEM. Model Diagram Symbols. Specification Concepts. Path Analysis Models. CFA Models. Structural Regression Models. Exploratory SEM. Summary. Recommended Readings. Exercises. 6. Identification. General Requirements. Unique Estimates. Rule for Recursive Structural Models. Rules for Nonrecursive Structural Models. Rules for Standard CFA Models. Rules for Nonstandard CFA Models. Rules for SR Models. A Healthy Perspective on Identification. Empirical Underidentification. Managing Identification Problems. Summary. Recommended Readings. Exercises. APPENDIX 6.A. Evaluation of the Rank Condition. 7. Estimation. Maximum Likelihood Estimation. TOPIC BOX 7.1. Two-Stage Least Squares Estimation. Detailed Example. Brief Example with a Start Value Problem. Fitting Models to Correlation Matrices. Alternative Estimators. A Healthy Perspective on Estimation. Summary. Recommended Readings. Exercises. APPENDIX 7.A. Start Value Suggestions for Structural Models. APPENDIX 7.B. Effect Decomposition in Nonrecursive Models and the Equilibrium Assumption. 8. Hypothesis Testing. Eyes on the Prize. State of Practice, State of Mind. A Healthy Perspective on Fit Statistics. Types of Fit Statistics and "Golden Rules." Model Chi-Square. Approximate Fit Indexes. Visual Summaries of Fit. Recommended Approach to Model Fit Evaluation. Detailed Example. Testing Hierarchical Models. Comparing Nonhierarchical Models. Power Analysis. Equivalent and Near-Equivalent Models. Summary. Recommended Readings. Exercises. 9. Measurement Models and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Naming and Reification Fallacies. Estimation of CFA Models. Detailed Example. Respecification of Measurement Models. Special Topics and Tests. TOPIC BOX 9.1. Reliability of Construct Measurement. Items as Indicators and Other Methods for Analyzing Items. Estimated Factor Scores. Equivalent CFA Models. Hierarchical CFA Models. Models for Multitrait–Multimethod Data. Measurement Invariance and Multiple-Sample CFA. Summary. Recommended Readings. Exercises. APPENDIX 9.A. Start Value Suggestions for Measurement Models. APPENDIX 9.B. Constraint Interaction in Measurement Models. 10. Structural Regression Models. Analyzing SR Models. Estimation of SR Models. Detailed Example. Equivalent SR Models. Single Indicators in Partially Latent SR Models. Cause Indicators and Formative Measurement. TOPIC BOX 10.1. Partial Least Squares Path Modeling. Invariance Testing of SR Models. Reporting Results of SEM Analyses. Summary. Recommended Readings. Exercises. APPENDIX 10.A. Constraint Interaction in SR Models. Part 3. Advanced Techniques, Avoiding Mistakes. 11. Mean Structures and Latent Growth Models. Logic of Mean Structures. Identification of Mean Structures. Estimation of Mean Structures. Latent Growth Models. Structured Means in Measurement Models. MIMIC Models as an Alternative to Multiple-Sample Analysis. Summary. Recommended Readings. 12. Interaction Effects and Multilevel SEM. Interaction Effects of Observed Variables. Interaction Effects in Path Models. Mediation and Moderation Together. Interactive Effects of Latent Variables. Estimation with the Kenny-Judd Method. Alternative Estimation Methods. Rationale of Multilevel Analysis Basic Multilevel Techniques. Convergence of SEM and MLM. Multilevel SEM. Summary. Recommended Readings. 13. How to Fool Yourself with SEM. Tripping at the Starting Line: Specification. Improper Care and Feeding: Data. Checking Critical Judgment at the Door: Analysis and Respecification. The Garden Path: Interpretation. Summary. Recommended Readings. Suggested Answers to Exercises.