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Pierced for our transgressions: Rediscovering the Glory of Penal Substitution [Paperback]

Steve Jeffery , Mike Ovey , Andrew Sach
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Table of Contents



The authors


1. Introduction
Setting the scene
Responding to the challenge

2. Searching the Scriptures: the biblical foundations of penal
Exodus 12
Leviticus 18
Isaiah 52:13 - 53:12
The Gospel of Mark
The Gospel of John
Galatians 3:10-13
1 Peter 2:21-25 and 3:18

3. Assembling the pieces: the theological framework for penal substitution
Setting the scene
`Decreation' - the undoing of creation
The consequences of sin
Truth, goodness, justice and salvation
Relationships within the Trinity

4. Exploring the implications: the pastoral importance of penal
Assurance of God's love
Confidence in God's truthfulness
Passion for God's justice
Realism about our sin

5. Surveying the heritage: the historical pedigree of penal substitution
Introduction: Why bother with church history?
Justin Martyr (c. 100-165)
Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 275-339)
Hilary of Poitiers (c. 300-368)
Athanasius (c. 300-373)
Gregory of Nazianzus (c. 330-390)
Ambrose of Milan (339-397)
John Chrysostom (c. 350-397)
Augustine of Hippo (354-430)
Cyril of Alexandria (375-444)
Gelasius of Cyzicus (fifth century)
Gregory the Great (c. 540-604)
Thomas Aquinas (c. 125-1274)
John Calvin (1509-64)
Francis Turretin (1623-87)
John Bunyan (1628-88)
John Owen (1616-85)
George Whitefield (1714-70)
Charles H. Spurgeon (1834-92)
D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones (1899-1981)
John R. W. Stott (born 1921)
J. I. Packer (born 1926)
The Universities and Colleges Christian Fellowship (UCCF) Doctrinal Basis
The Evangelical Alliance Basis of Faith


6. Introduction to the debate
Setting the scene
Our approach
Why do it this way?

7. Penal substitution and the Bible
1. `Penal substitution is not the only model of the atonement'
2. `Penal substitution is not central to the atonement'
3. `Penal substitution diminishes the significance of Jesus' life and
4. `Penal substitution is not taught in the Bible'
5. `Penal substitution is not important enough to be a source of division'

8. Penal substitution and culture
1. `Penal substitution is the product of human culture, not biblical
2. `Penal substitution is unable to address the real needs of human
3. `Penal substitution relies on biblical words, metaphors and concepts
that are outdated and misunderstood in our culture'

9. Penal substitution and violence
1. `Penal substitution rests on unbiblical ideas of sacrifice'
2. `The violence involved in penal substitution amounts to "cosmic child
3. `The retributive violence involved in penal substitution contradicts
Jesus' message of peace and love'
4. `The violence inherent in penal substitution is an example of "the myth
of redemptive violence", which can never overcome evil'

10. Penal substitution and justice
1. `It is unjust to punish an innocent person, even if he is willing to be
2. `Biblical justice is about restoring relationships, not exacting
3. `Penal substitution implicitly denies that God forgives sin'
4. `Penal substitution does not work, for the penalty Christ suffered was
not equivalent to that due to us'
5. `Penal substitution implies universal salvation, which is unbiblical'

11. Penal substitution and our understanding of God
1. `Penal substitution implies a division between the persons of the
2. `Penal substitution relies on an unbiblical view of an angry God that is
incompatible with his love'
3. `Penal substitution misunderstands the relationship between God's wrath
and human sin'
4. `Penal substitution generates an unbiblical view of a God constrained by
a law external to himself'
5. `Penal substitution is an impersonal, mechanistic account of the

12. Penal substitution and the Christian life
1. `Penal substitution fails to address the issues of political and social
sin and cosmic evil'
2. `Penal substitution is an entirely objective account of the atonement,
and fails to address our side of the Creator-creature relationship'
3. `Penal substitution causes people to live in fear of God'
4. `Penal substitution legitimates violence and encourages the passive
acceptance of unjust suffering'

13. A final word
`The Vague Objection'
`The Emotional Objection'

Appendix: A personal note to preachers
Exploring the problem
Addressing the problem

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