PART ONE: MAKING THE CASE
Setting the scene
Responding to the challenge
2. Searching the Scriptures: the biblical foundations of penal
Isaiah 52:13 - 53:12
The Gospel of Mark
The Gospel of John
1 Peter 2:21-25 and 3:18
3. Assembling the pieces: the theological framework for penal substitution
Setting the scene
`Decreation' - the undoing of creation
The consequences of sin
Truth, goodness, justice and salvation
Relationships within the Trinity
4. Exploring the implications: the pastoral importance of penal
Assurance of God's love
Confidence in God's truthfulness
Passion for God's justice
Realism about our sin
5. Surveying the heritage: the historical pedigree of penal substitution
Introduction: Why bother with church history?
Justin Martyr (c. 100-165)
Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 275-339)
Hilary of Poitiers (c. 300-368)
Athanasius (c. 300-373)
Gregory of Nazianzus (c. 330-390)
Ambrose of Milan (339-397)
John Chrysostom (c. 350-397)
Augustine of Hippo (354-430)
Cyril of Alexandria (375-444)
Gelasius of Cyzicus (fifth century)
Gregory the Great (c. 540-604)
Thomas Aquinas (c. 125-1274)
John Calvin (1509-64)
Francis Turretin (1623-87)
John Bunyan (1628-88)
John Owen (1616-85)
George Whitefield (1714-70)
Charles H. Spurgeon (1834-92)
D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones (1899-1981)
John R. W. Stott (born 1921)
J. I. Packer (born 1926)
The Universities and Colleges Christian Fellowship (UCCF) Doctrinal Basis
The Evangelical Alliance Basis of Faith
PART TWO: ANSWERING THE CRITICS
6. Introduction to the debate
Setting the scene
Why do it this way?
7. Penal substitution and the Bible
1. `Penal substitution is not the only model of the atonement'
2. `Penal substitution is not central to the atonement'
3. `Penal substitution diminishes the significance of Jesus' life and
4. `Penal substitution is not taught in the Bible'
5. `Penal substitution is not important enough to be a source of division'
8. Penal substitution and culture
1. `Penal substitution is the product of human culture, not biblical
2. `Penal substitution is unable to address the real needs of human
3. `Penal substitution relies on biblical words, metaphors and concepts
that are outdated and misunderstood in our culture'
9. Penal substitution and violence
1. `Penal substitution rests on unbiblical ideas of sacrifice'
2. `The violence involved in penal substitution amounts to "cosmic child
3. `The retributive violence involved in penal substitution contradicts
Jesus' message of peace and love'
4. `The violence inherent in penal substitution is an example of "the myth
of redemptive violence", which can never overcome evil'
10. Penal substitution and justice
1. `It is unjust to punish an innocent person, even if he is willing to be
2. `Biblical justice is about restoring relationships, not exacting
3. `Penal substitution implicitly denies that God forgives sin'
4. `Penal substitution does not work, for the penalty Christ suffered was
not equivalent to that due to us'
5. `Penal substitution implies universal salvation, which is unbiblical'
11. Penal substitution and our understanding of God
1. `Penal substitution implies a division between the persons of the
2. `Penal substitution relies on an unbiblical view of an angry God that is
incompatible with his love'
3. `Penal substitution misunderstands the relationship between God's wrath
and human sin'
4. `Penal substitution generates an unbiblical view of a God constrained by
a law external to himself'
5. `Penal substitution is an impersonal, mechanistic account of the
12. Penal substitution and the Christian life
1. `Penal substitution fails to address the issues of political and social
sin and cosmic evil'
2. `Penal substitution is an entirely objective account of the atonement,
and fails to address our side of the Creator-creature relationship'
3. `Penal substitution causes people to live in fear of God'
4. `Penal substitution legitimates violence and encourages the passive
acceptance of unjust suffering'
13. A final word
`The Vague Objection'
`The Emotional Objection'
Appendix: A personal note to preachers
Exploring the problem
Addressing the problem