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Phonological Development: The First Two Years [Paperback]

Marilyn May Vihman

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Table of Contents

Note on Second Edition xi Acknowledgments xiii 1 Introduction 1 Biological Foundations of Language Development 3 Phonological Development: Goals and Challenges 10 Methodologies: Data Sources andTheoretical Perspectives 13 Overview 16 2 Precursors to Language: The First 18 Months of Life 18 TheDevelopment of Linguistic Form and Function 20 1 Early Capacities: Birth to 2 Months 23 2 Early Capacities: 2 to 4 Months 26 3 Early Capacities: 4 to 6 Months 28 4 First Advances: 6 to 9 Months 29 5 Bringing the Strands Together: 9 to 12 Months 31 6 Transition to Language Use: 12 to 18 Months 35 Learning Mechanisms 40 Summary: Precursors and the Transition to Language Use 46 3 Development in Perception: Early Capacities, Rapid Change 49 Issues that Motivated the Study of Infant Speech Perception 49 Methods Used to Study Infant Speech Perception 56 Discrimination: Infant Capacities 59 Mechanisms Underlying Infant Perception 60 Developmental Change in Perception 63 ‘Perceptual Narrowing’: Models of Developmental Change 67 Cross–Modal Perception 75 Summary:The Infant Listener – From Universal to Particular 78 4 Infant Vocal Production 80 Early Vocal Production 81 The Social Context, I: Precanonical Period 91 The Emergence of Adult–Like Syllables 95 The Social Context, II: Canonical Period 101 Vowel Production in the First Year 103 Influence from the Ambient Language 105 Summary: Biological and Social Foundations 110 5 Perceptual Advances in the First Year: Prosody, Segmentation and Distributional Learning 112 The Role of Prosody and Infant–Directed Speech (IDS) 113 Prosodic Bootstrapping 117 Advances in Knowledge of Accentual Patterns and Phonotactics 121 Experimental Studies of Segmentation 125 Distributional or Statistical Learning 139 Summary: Rhythms and Segmental Patterns 143 6 The Transition to Language Use 145 Beginnings ofWord Comprehension 146 Development of Intentional Communication 150 ReferentialWord Use 161 Phonetic and Phonological Development 163 Rhythm in Child Production 168 Emergence of Phonological Systematicity 175 Summary: Continuity and Change 177 7 Experimental Studies ofWord–Form Learning 179 The Role of Phonology inWord Recognition andWord Learning 179 The Perceptual Basis ofWord Learning 180 Explorations of ‘Phonological Specificity’ 186 Integrating the Findings 200 Neurophysiological Investigation ofWord Learning 202 Summary:Understanding theDevelopment of Representation 209 8 Phonological Development in the Bilingual Child 212 The Study of Child Bilingualism 213 ‘Non–selectivity’ in Adult Bilingual Processing 214 Speech Perception and Processing 217 Bilingual Production 231 Separate Systems with Interaction 241 Summary: The Experience of the Bilingual Child 243 9 Theories, I: Formalist and PerceptionModels 245 What is the Source of the Linguistic System? 246 The First Linguistic Models 248 Contemporary Formalist Models 254 Contemporary Formalist Models: Critique and Appreciation 268 Perception Models 270 Perception Models: Critique and Appreciation 275 Summary:Theory and Data in Developmental Models 275 10 Theories, II: Functionalist or Emergentist Models 277 Biological Model 278 Self–Organizing Models 279 Usage–Based Models 285 Whole–Word Phonology 290 Functionalist or Emergentist Models: Critique and Appreciation 307 Summary: Emergent Phonology 309 11 Conclusion 311 Linking Perception and Production 312 Effects of Lexical Learning and Language Use 315 Appendix 1: Data Sources 318 Appendix 2: Protoword Forms and Uses 321 Appendix 3: Template Analyses 323 Word Template Analysis: A Diary Study 323 Word Template Analysis: Research Studies 331 Generality of Template Use 346 References 349 Name Index 407 Subject Index 417

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