International Negotiation Series, 4 (International Studies Library, 5) Since the 1990s, African actors have been engaged in ending civil wars. These efforts have often been characterized as the quest for indigenous solutions to local conflicts. Using cases of mediation in Eastern Africa-Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, and Sudan - this study probes the strengths and weaknesses of African mediation initiatives. The book contends that although African actors have limited resources to mediate civil wars, over the years, they have learnt to seize opportunities that accrue from participating in conflict resolution to contribute to peaceful settlements. Conceptualized as building organizational power for mediation, this process has entailed evolving professional norms and standards of intervention. Eastern African mediators have also benefited from interaction with international mediators in conflict resolution. Table of Contents Chapter 1: Mediators or Meddlers? African Interveners in Eastern African Civil Wars, Introduction Chapter 2: Moi Mediates Uganda's Civil War, 1985 Chapter 3: Tanzania Mediates Rwanda's Civil War, 1992-1993 Chapter 4: Nyerere Mediates Burundi. Civil War, 1995-1999 Chapter 5: Mandela Mediate Burundi's. Civil War, 1999-2001 Chapter 6: Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD). Mediates Sudan's Civil War, 1993-2002 Chapter 7: Professionalizing IGAD's Mediation, 1999-2005 Chapter 8: Conclusion: Eastern African Mediators. In Comparative Perspectives About the Author Gilbert M. Khadiagala, Ph.D. (1990) in International Relations, Johns Hopkins University, is Jan Smuts Professor of International Relations and Head of Department of International Relations at University of Witwatersrand. He previously taught at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), The Johns Hopkins University in Washington, D.C, Kent State University and the University of Nairobi. He has published extensively on African security issues. Professor Khadiagala was the founding Director of the Africa Program at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (1999-2002) and has been a consultant to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) in Oslo, Addis Ababa, and Nairobi; the Office of the United Nations Special Representative for the Great Lakes (UNOSRGL), Nairobi; OXFAM-GB, Nairobi; International Peace Academy (IPA), New York; the World Bank, Washington, DC; the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS), National Defense University, Washington, DC; and with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) contractors on projects in the Great Lakes and West Africa.