We live in a material world. But what is matter? Can it point us towards meanings outside itself, or can any meaning it possesses only be invested in it by human beings? To what extent might these semantic activities overlap? How have our current understandings of matter and meaning developed from those of past thinkers, in both Western and non-Western contexts? These and many other questions were addressed at a conference held under the auspices of the Science and Religion Forum at Liverpool Hope University in 2008. That conference brought together some leading figures in the disciplines of theology and the natural sciences, and a selection of the papers given at it is now presented in this book. They offer important new historical, scientific and theological insights from a variety of perspectives to those with an interest in the fast-developing area of the dialogue between these disciplines; and they will also be found valuable by anyone who wishes to explore the complexities of this dialogue, as it moves beyond the black-and-white histrionics of its presentation in the popular media.