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4.7 out of 5 stars
The Making of the English Working Class (Penguin Modern Classics)
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71 of 74 people found the following review helpful
on 1 February 2005
An extraordinary volume looking at a period (1780-1832) when the manufacturing classes got organised and gradually reduced wages and rationalised production, with the aid of a good deal of machinery. Thompson shows how the increasingly impoverished and alienated working classes, as they gradually came to think of themselves, worked their way through a variety of radical postures, including Jacobinism, dissent and methodism, constitutional reform, and then repressed by the Tory government during the Napoleonic wars went underground and turned up in 1816 more radical and numerous than ever. By this time we have highly organised if localised trade unions, groups and clubs in every neighbourhood studying Cobbett, The Black Dwarf and other radical literature, embracing agitation for universal suffrage and the cooperative ideas of Robert Owen. We also get fascinating pictures of men like Cobbett, Henry Hunt, William Blake and Hazlitt as well as many less well known names and the countless thousands who suffered and struggled in the interests of their class. Thompson also shows how historians who have not done his colossal research have often settled for Whig propaganda about the mindless character of the working class, or the condescension of contemporary historians like Place who wanted to play down the energy and commitment of radical elements.
Above all Thompson for the most part works hard to get a balanced view sometimes from limited information and keeps his tongue in his cheek much of the time. He is witty and cheerful, and the book is full of quotations from original sources. A great read if you want to really understand what was going on when Britain became 'great'.
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59 of 62 people found the following review helpful
on 18 July 2003
I had two major preconceptions which this book has reduced to rubble. The first was that social history was boring; the second was that all working class movements were (disappointingly) lead or supported by the middle-classes, and once the middle-classes got what they wanted and put the brakes on the movements they led the workers collapsed. This led me to view the working class (from which I spring) as pliant, disordered and whimsical. However, this book has taught me: social history is not boring; and the working classes are not feckless, whimsical and slavish (at least not a majority at that time). This is the story of a whole way of life for the lower swathe of society being slowly and calculatedly ripped limb from limb then stitched back together by and for people who found it profitable for themselves to do so. However, the process was not acted on passive beings; hearteningly, the people upon whom some of the cruellest (sustained and systematic) acts in history (before the 20th Century) were perpetrated on fought back, and did a good deal to frustrate the aims of Authority. There was heroic resistance and a great deal of this resistance was led by the working classes themselves. The resisitance, by its nature, also developed political consciousnes, political involvement, and an admirable way of life that seems to have left this country now - returning home from work (12 - 14 hours in those days) and educating yourself. The story is well told, although admittedly it starts slowly and for those who have no interest in statistics they will find a few dull patches. Nevertheless, it is a vital, fascinating and inspiring work. We seldom hear of this period of history in ways other than 'the Nasty Bonaparte' and 'Hero Wellington'. It is envigorating to know that in Britain Wellington wasn't everybody's hero, that people thought for themsleves and were prepared to do something about their situation, nor was the war being fought viewed as a clean-cut good v evil duel adrumbating the wars of the Twentieth Century. Anecdotes, tales of sacrifice, notes on literary figures, cruelties of a ruthless ruling class, spies, dissemblers, controversies and daring conspiracies: there are other histories to be told; this book tells one of them and tells it very well.
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16 of 17 people found the following review helpful
on 29 June 2010
The study of history has been through a number of fashions since the end of the Second World War. Marxism, more traditional Whig approaches and post-structuralism have all been among the most influential in how historians approach their discipline. But one name stands out when postwar social history is discussed: E. P. Thompson.

It is true that Thompson displayed support for Marxist ideas and was a member of the CPGB until 1956. However, his theories on the development of social class are far from doctrinaire. Whereas Althusser in France was developing a much more structuralist approach to class, Thompson believed that working-class agency lay at the heart of the development of working-class culture and politics. The prefaces outline this approach very clearly and are, for me at least, some of the most important parts of this book. He also looks at traditional forms of radicalism and saw in England the continuation of these as the working class developed and bonded together to face the new world of industrialisation. This is reflected in other works by Thompson where what was seen as corruption in government was often the source of discontent rather than the lack of democracy. However, both added up to the same thing for radicals: the need for a political system much more open to widespread participation. Traditional forms of discontent, such as rioting, were also maintained and helped to demonstrate that the working class were not just victims of structural changes to England's economy and society.

In 'The making of the English working class', Thompson also pays homage to the role of religion in working-class life demonstrating that Thompson is aware of how rich and vibrant the working-class experience was. The associational culture of the working class, be it in trade unions or in sports clubs, has become an essential part of social history research and this must owe something to Thompson and his work in liberating the less poweful in society from their stereotypical role as merely the victims of economic developments. Undoubtedly Thompson is a left-wing historian but this should not dissuade anyone from reading this excellent work because it gives such a detailed view of the development of working-class consciousness, even if, ultimately, this consciousness did not endure as some thought it would.
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1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
This review is of the 1991 Penguin edition of a work originally published in 1963. The edition includes Thompson’s preface to the 1980 edition and the postscript he inserted in 1968 in which he addressed some of the criticisms made of his magnum opus. The work itself is divided by Thompson into three parts: 1. ‘The Liberty Tree’, 2. ‘The Curse of Adam’, & 3. ‘The Working-Class Presence’. The parts in total comprise fifteen chapters written on over nine hundred pages. There are no figures, maps, or illustrations: all is text. Sounds like heavy going, but for me it was highly enlightening, bringing out of the shadows a history of England that is very rarely mentioned in these times – and is very readable.

In his preface, Thompson sets out his stall, saying he is looking at the crucial period between 1780 and 1830-35, the point at which “the working class are no longer in the making but has been made.” He remarks that, “This is a group of studies, on related themes, rather than a consecutive narrative.” He argues that the working class is not a thing in itself but a historical process.

Then there is that famous paragraph about the losers: “I am seeking to rescue the poor stockinger, the Luddite cropper, the ‘obsolete’ hand-loom weaver, the ‘utopian’ artisan, and even the deluded follower of Joanna Southcott, from the enormous condescension of posterity. Their crafts and traditions may have been dying. Their hostility to the new industrialism may have been backward-looking. Their communitarian ideals may have been foolhardy. But they lived through these times of acute social disturbance, and we did not.” Thompson seeks to rescue them from the footnotes of history and make them the main text.

In the first chapter the scene is set in 1792, in the heady atmosphere of the French revolution still in its throes across the channel with the British authorities seeking to contain any signs of similar actions occurring on this side. Thompson tells us of the actions of the London Correspondence Society in its attempt to further the cause of the working man and I could not help but ruminate that today, fifty years after the Thompson’s book was written, the prime importance of private property remains centre-stage, only now it is elements of the ‘working class’ in league with capital who are the investors in ‘buy-to-lets’. Contemporary observances like these littered my reading and no doubt will do yours too, such is the book’s value at subtly highlighting inherent and incessant conflicts within society.

Space precludes my reviewing the rest of the book in any detail. But Thompson also addresses the influence of religious dissent and the importance of certain texts – from Bunyan’s ‘Pilgrim’s Progress’ and Paine’s ‘Rights of Man’ to the ideas of Cobbett and Owen – to the mental raw material of these troubled and troubling times. In particular I learned how Methodism deflected agitation against economic injustice rather than nurtured it; how the ‘revolutionary mob’ was less of a problem than the hired hands of the ‘Church and King’ parties; and how there was such a thing as the English ‘Reign of terror’ to mirror that in France. Indeed, even now, we celebrate our triumphs on the high seas and on the fields of battle in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars without ever considering the repression that took place back home. When the wars were finally over, barracks had to be built all over the country.

Thompson explores the living standards and quality of life for occupational groups such as weavers. As well as the world of what we traditionally think of as the industrial revolution, Thompson does not neglect the lives of those working in agriculture and domestic service. But his contention is that it was not the factory worker but the skilled artisan who had the most to lose and was thus the centre of agitation.

We laugh now at Luddites, but he clearly shows that “Luddism must be seen as arising at the cross-point in the abrogation of paternalist legislation, and in the imposition of the political economy of ‘laissez-faire’ upon, and against the will and conscience of, the working people.” Those processes of abrogation and imposition have never ended since the word ‘Luddite’ was first coined, Thompson writing how with Luddism “What was at issue was the ‘freedom’ of the capitalist to destroy the customs of the trade.”

Thompson’s language is rich in memorable phrases – such as how the “slave owners from West Indian plantations grafted their wealth to ancient pedigrees at the marriage-market” – and a few words of cutting humour often inhabit the text. And lest we think Thompson overtly prejudiced, there is often a clear striving for objectivity, such as in the effects of the industrial revolution on the status of women. And he also draws on literature as witness testimony: Jane Austen, Charlotte Bronte, Gaskell, Coleridge and Southey make passing appearances.

I did A-level history and in many respects reading this book was a revisiting of what we touched on at school in the early 1980s. But then I was young and little interest in history’s ‘losers’. Now I am older, wiser – and a worker and ‘loser’ myself – I can now appreciate more the fascinating struggles of my ancestors. But there is so much here in Thompson’s book than I was taught at school and that is new to me. For example, why is the Pentridge Rising not as well-known as the field of Waterloo? Thompson has inspired me to explore these aspects of English history, such as the works of Paine and Cobbett. And I can only end my review by quoting from Thompson’s final paragraph: “The working people … had … nourished, for fifty years, and with incomparable fortitude, the Liberty Tree. We may thank them for these years of heroic culture.”
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11 of 14 people found the following review helpful
First read this at least 30 years ago. Still have a paperback copy in my bedside draw. It is my companion when I seek comfort or get lost in the daily grind of work, home, work & cannot sleep. I read random pages, sometimes I only manage a few lines. But, the book has an intense depth in each sentence of such imagery and knowledge.
I know where I come from and who I am when I read this book. I get great strength knowing my predecessors suffered and survived far greater hardships than I will ever imagine or endure. Not only that, but they fought to obtain rights and recognition for their contributions to the making of the society that I and others take for granted today.

To the English Working Class and the late, great E.P Thompson I am eternally grateful.
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3 of 4 people found the following review helpful
on 3 November 2013
Academic texts are often unduly dismissed due to their dry-as-dust reputation. E.P. Thompson, influential in his day, has been unfairly neglected. This is probably partly due to the declining interest in the study of the 'working class'. But this book is about much, much more, and deserves to be read by anyone who would consider themselves well-versed in British social history.
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5 of 7 people found the following review helpful
on 31 December 2010
Other readers have commented on the book's compelling narrative and vivid style. What interests me about it mainly is that it's an attempt to apply Marxist tools to historical analysis. We can argue the pros and cons of 'Marx's theory of history'. More - or at least equally - interesting is the light which Marxist analysis throws (if any : and I think quite a lot) on social history. Here's a Marxist historian at work, checking the archives and statistics, and delivering his results for all, not just a coterie of other Marxists, to scrutinise and assess.
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5 of 8 people found the following review helpful
on 17 January 2012
One of the best and most vital pieces written on 'History from Below'. Those who works with history of any period should take note. Not only does Thompson give names to the nameless, he does so with an incredible talent for writing which makes 90% of academic writing today look sub-par (mainly because it is).
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27 of 42 people found the following review helpful
on 3 October 2002
Today Thompson's Marxist views are somewhat out of fashion, but this study is trully masterfull. You may hate his opinion and question his selection of sources, yet to ignore this work of would be a absolute shame on history. His views on Methodism (which cause the biggest stur at the time) should be looked at and considered. I probably should enter this review as it is my ancestors whom Thompson praises, nevertheless any stuident of social economic history should give this ago. Anyway to add balance you can always compare it Perkins "Origins of Modern English Society"
To quote the text "The Levolution has begun, so i'll and get my gun and shoot the Duke of Wellington" REMEMBER PETERLOO!
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4 of 7 people found the following review helpful
on 19 October 2011
This book is a must for students of this period;whatever their political persuasion, which is not to say that it is entirely impartial.It relies exhaustively on a multitude of accounts taken from the mouths of the oppressors and the oppressed.He dissects and mostly destroys the arguements of his opponents.If there are any weaknesses, they are minor.He offers us few accounts of the domestic servants (the third largest group of workers) and a better, more rounded economic analysis of the Industrial Revolution can be found in Hobsbawns The Age of Revolution.His indictment of politicians and the aristocracy of this period is compelling.The crimes of the church appear to be of lower order though Thompson would not agree in regard to the Methodists.
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