This book has been written to meet the needs of students for biotechnology courses at various levels of undergraduate and graduate studies. This book covers all the important aspects of plant tissue culture viz. nutrition media, micropropagation, organ culture, cell suspension culture, haploid culture, protoplast isolation and fusion, secondary metabolite production, somaclonal variation and cryopreservation. For good understanding of recombinant DNA technology, chapters on genetic material, organization of DNA in the genome and basic techniques involved in recombinant DNA technology have been added. Different aspects on rDNA technology covered gene cloning, isolation of plant genes, transposons and gene tagging, in vitro mutagenesis, PCR, molecular markers and marker assisted selection, gene transfer methods, chloroplast and mitochondrion DNA transformation, genomics and bioinformatics. Genomics covers functional and structural genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, sequencing status of different organisms and DNA chip technology. Application of biotechnology has been discussed as transgenics in crop improvement and impact of recombinant DNA technology mainly in relation to biotech crops.