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Introduction to Old English [Paperback]

Peter S. Baker
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Table of Contents

Preface xii Preface to the Second Edition xiii Preface to the Third Edition xiv How to use this book xv 1 The Anglo–Saxons and Their Language 1 1.1 Who were they? 1 1.2 Where did their language come from? 3 1.3 What was Old English like? 4 1.4 Old English dialects 10 2 Pronunciation 11 2.1 Quick start 11 2.2 More about vowels 16 2.3 More about c and g 18 2.4 Syllable length 20 2.5 Accentuation 20 2.6 On–line pronunciation practice 21 2.7 Summary 21 3 Basic Grammar: A Review 22 3.1 Parts of speech 22 3.2 Phrases 28 3.3 Clauses 29 3.4 Elements of the sentence or clause 30 4 Case 34 4.1 What is case? 34 4.2 Uses of the cases 35 5 Pronouns 41 5.1 Quick start 41 5.2 More about personal and demonstrative pronouns 44 5.3 Interrogative pronouns 45 5.4 Indefinite pronouns 46 5.5 Relative pronouns 47 5.6 Reflexive pronouns 48 5.7 Reciprocal pronouns 48 6 Nouns 50 6.1 Quick start 50 6.2 More about strong nouns 57 6.3 Minor declensions 60 7 Verbs 64 7.1 Quick start 64 7.2 More about endings 68 7.3 More about weak verbs 69 7.4 More about strong verbs 73 7.5 Verbs with weak presents and strong pasts 79 7.6 More about preterite–present verbs 80 7.8 Negation 82 7.9 The verbals 83 7.10 The subjunctive 85 8 Adjectives 89 8.1 Quick start 89 8.2 Strong adjectives 91 8.3 Weak adjectives 92 8.4 Comparison of adjectives 93 8.5 The adjective in the noun phrase 94 9 Numerals 96 9.1 Quick start 96 9.2 Cardinal numbers 97 9.3 Ordinal numbers 98 10 Adverbs, Conjunctions and Prepositions 99 10.1 Quick start 99 10.2 Adverbs 99 10.3 Conjunctions 101 10.4 Correlation 102 10.5 Prepositions 104 11 Concord 106 11.1 Quick start 106 11.2 Subject and verb 107 11.3 Pronoun and antecedent 110 11.4 Noun and modifiers 111 11.5 Bad grammar? 112 12 Word–order 115 12.1 Quick start 115 12.2 Subject–Verb 115 12.3 Verb–Subject 117 12.4 Subject . . . Verb 118 12.5 Correlation 119 12.6 Anticipation 121 12.7 Periphrastic verbs 121 13 Metre 123 13.1 Alliteration 124 13.2 Rhythm 126 14 Poetic Style 133 14.1 Vocabulary 134 14.2 Variation 137 14.3 Formulas 140 15 The Grammar of Poetry 146 15.1 Inflections 146 15.2 Syntax 147 16 Old English in its Material Context 156 16.1 Manuscripts 156 16.2 Runes 163 16.3 Other inscriptions 167 Appendix A Common Spelling Variants 169 A.1 Vowels of accented syllables 169 A.2 Unaccented syllables 170 A.3 Consonants 171 Appendix B Phonetic Symbols and Terms 172 B.1 International Phonetic Alphabet symbols 172 B.2 Phonetic terms 174 Appendix C Further Reading 175 C.1 General works 175 C.2 Grammars 175 C.3 Dictionaries and concordances 176 C.4 Bibliographies 176 C.5 Old English texts and translations 177 C.6 Literary criticism; sources and analogues; metre 178 C.7 History and culture 178 C.8 Manuscripts, art and archaeology 178 C.9 On–line aids 179 C.10 On–line amusements 180 Anthology 181 1 The Fall of Adam and Eve 181 2 The Life of St Æthelthryth 183 3 Cynewulf and Cyneheard 186 4 The Martyrdom of Ælfheah 188 5 Sermo Lupi ad Anglos 191 6 King Alfred’s Preface to Gregory’s Pastoral Care 197 7 Ohthere and Wulfstan 202 8 The Story of Cædmon 210 9 Boethius on Fame 215 10 A Selection of Riddles 223 11 The Battle of Maldon 227 12 The Wanderer 240 13 The Dream of the Rood 245 14 The Battle of Finnesburh 251 15 Waldere 253 16 Wulf and Eadwacer 257 17 The Wife’s Lament 259 18 The Husband’s Message 262 19 Judith 264 Textual Notes 275 Glossary 283 References 387 Index 394

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