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Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements Hardcover – 28 Jun 2005

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Product details

  • Hardcover: 768 pages
  • Publisher: CRC Press; 2 edition (28 Jun 2005)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0849337739
  • ISBN-13: 978-0849337734
  • Product Dimensions: 17.8 x 4.1 x 25.4 cm
  • Average Customer Review: 3.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (1 customer review)
  • Amazon Bestsellers Rank: 1,663,131 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
  • See Complete Table of Contents

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About the Author

Northrop; Robert B. University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA, --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

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By F. Mundell on 3 Sep 2014
Format: Hardcover Verified Purchase
Dont have time to give fair review - see rating
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4 of 4 people found the following review helpful
Reference and Textbook 27 April 2000
By David Meadows - Published on
Format: Hardcover
Sensing/measurement technologies are presented for a very wide variety of effects. Covers enough of the details to be useful to a real engineer but does not force the reader to wade though every possible issue to find out what is really critical in a design area. This is the strength of the book and not very common especially for books of it's breath. The book is very up to date which is also rare for a survey book. Worth using as a real reference, it will not just set on the bookshelf.
2 of 3 people found the following review helpful
Useful Text and Reference 19 Nov 2005
By P. Nagy - Published on
Format: Hardcover
An excellent sourcebook for students and practicing engineers alike, Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements includes all the general information on instrumentation and measurements, as well as the technical details you need to apply your knowledge in the real world. The book is very up to date which is also rare for a survey book. Worth using as a real reference, it will not just set on the bookshelf. There is no other text like it.

Excerpt: Knowledge of instrumentation is critical in light of the highly sensitive and exact requirements of modern processes and systems. Rapid development in instrumentation technology coupled with the adoption of new standards makes a firm, up-to-date foundation of knowledge more important than ever for those entering into almost every engineering field. Understanding this, Robert B. Northrop produced the best-selling Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements in 1997. The second edition continues to provide in-depth coverage of a wide array of modern instrumentation and measurement topics, updated to reflect advances in the field.

See What's New in the Second Edition:

Anderson Current Loop technology

Design of optical polarimeters and their applications

Photonic measurements with photomultipliers and channel-plate photon sensors Sensing of gas-phase analytes (electronic "noses")

Using the Sagnac effect to measure vehicle angular velocity

Micromachined, vibrating mass, and vibrating disk rate gyros

Analysis of the Humphrey air jet gyro

Micromachined IC accelerometers

GPS and modifications made to improve accuracy

Substance detection using photons

Sections on dithering, delta-sigma ADCs. data acquisition cards, the USB, and virtual instruments and PXI systems

Based on Northrop's 40 years of experience, Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements, Second Edition is unequalled in its depth and breadth of coverage.


Expands its scope to encompass geophysical, chemical, and photonic measurement Describes low-noise system designs and covers digital signal processing and interfaces Includes clear examples along with challenging, classroom-tested problems

Purpose: This text is intended to be used in a classroom course for engineers that covers the theory and art of modern instrumentation and measurements (I&M). There is more than enough material to support two semesters' work. Thus, the instructor has the option of choosing those topics and the depth of coverage that suit his or her interests and curriculum. Due to its breadth, Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements, 2nd edition will also be useful as a reference for the practicing engineer and scientist interested in I&M.

Why have a classroom course in I&M? Over the past decade or so, in the U.S, many EE departments have discontinued classroom courses on the theory and practice of instrumentation and measurements. In this period, we have also seen the swift development of new and exciting means of measurement using new technologies, the adoption of new standards and, concurrently, the lack of development of a coherent educational base to support their understanding and use. Using an instrument in the laboratory is not the same as understanding the physical and electronic principles underlying its design and functional limitations. Clearly, there is now more than ever a need for classroom experience in the new I&M that will give students the necessary technical background to use and design sensors, signal conditioning systems and I&M systems. We feel that this text supports that need.

This text was written based on the author's 40 years of experience in teaching a classroom course (EE 230), Electrical Instrumentation, to juniors and seniors in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the University of Connecticut, Storrs.

Obviously, in 40 years we have seen the field of instrumentation and measurements evolve with the rest of electrical engineering technology. Due to the rapid pace of technical development, it has generally been difficult to find an up-to-date text for our Electrical Instrumentation course. After years of frustration trying to match a text to course content, I decided to write one that would not only encompass the "traditional" aspects of I&M, but also include material on modern IC and photonic sensors, microsensors, signal conditioning, noise, data interfaces and DSP.

Reader Background: Readers are assumed to have taken core EE curriculum courses, or their equivalents. The reader should be skilled in basic linear circuit theory (i.e., the reader has mastered Thevenin's and Norton's theorems, Kirchoff's Laws, superposition, dependent sources, and ideal op-amps, and should know how to describe DC and AC steady-state circuits in terms of loop and node equations). An introductory systems course should have given him/her familiarity with both time and frequency domain methods of describing linear dynamic systems characterized by ordinary, linear, differential or difference equations, including state space, Fourier, Laplace and z-transforms, transfer functions, steady-state frequency response of systems, and Bode plots. From physics or an EE course in electromagnetics, the reader should have a basic knowledge of electric and magnetic fields, inductance, capacitance, reluctance, etc. There should also be some familiarity with electromagnetic waves, Maxwell's equations, transmission lines and polarization. From a first course in electronics, there should be basic knowledge of BJTs, JFETs, diodes, photodiodes and their simple linear circuit models.

Scope of the Text: A major feature of Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements, 2nd edition is its breadth of coverage. Throughout the text, a high level of mathematical analytical detail is maintained. It is not a "picture book"; we assume that readers have already had contact with basic electrical instruments, including oscilloscopes and meters in their introductory EE and physics labs.

In the following paragraphs, we give an overview of the contents.

Chapter 1, "Measurement Systems," is introductory in nature. In it, we illustrate measurement system architecture and describe sensor dynamics, signal conditioning, data display and storage. Errors in measurements are discussed, including the meaning of accuracy and precision, limiting error, etc. The recent (1990) quantum standards adopted for the volt and the ohm are described, as well as other modern electrical and physical standards.

In Chapter 2, "Analog Signal Conditioning," we describe, largely at the systems level, the means of conditioning the analog outputs of various sensors. Op-amps, differential, instrumentation, auto-zero and isolation amplifiers are covered. Applications of op-amps in active filters, differential instrumentation amplifiers, charge amplifiers, phase sensitive rectifiers, etc. are shown. We also give practical considerations of errors caused by offset voltage, bias currents, input impedance, slew rate and gain bandwidth product etc. There is also a section on nonlinear signal processing with op-amps.

Noise and coherent interference in measurements are treated in depth in Chapter 3. A heuristic yet rigorous approach is used in which we define and use one-sided, noise voltage and current power density spectra to describe the effect of noise in instruments and measurement systems. Noise factor and figure are covered, and output signal-to-noise ratios are used to evaluate system noise performance. Examples are given of calculations of the noise-limited resolution of the quantity under measurement (QUM). Techniques are shown for the minimization of coherent interference.

The traditional topics of DC null measurements and AC null measurements are presented in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5, respectively. Wheatstone and Kelvin bridges, and potentiometers are described in Chapter 4, and the major AC bridges used to measure the inductance, Q, and capacitance, D, are treated in Chapter 5. New material added to this chapter includes a description and analysis of the Anderson Current Loop method of reading sensor outputs.

A survey of sensor mechanisms is presented in Chapter 6. This is a large and substantive chapter covering a broad range of sensor mechanisms and types. Of special note is the introduction of certain fiber optic and electro-optic sensors, as well as selected chemical and ionizing radiation sensors. The Sagnac effect is introduced and the basic fiber optic gyro is described.

New material in Chapter 6 includes a description and analysis of sensors based on the giant magnetoresistive effect and the anisotropic magnetoresistive effect. Pyroelectric IR sensors are also introduced. The various means of measuring the rotation of linearly polarized light is presented, as well as a substantive section on photomultiplier tubes and channel-plate photomultipliers. Finally, a new section has been added on electronic noses which are used to sense volatile organic compounds.

In Chapter 7, "Applications of Sensors to Physical Measurements," a detailed analysis of mechanical gyroscopes, clinometers and accelerometers is given, including new material on micromachined accelerometers and gyros. The Doppler effect in ultrasonic velocimetry and laser Doppler velocimetry are covered. Also new in Chapter 7 is large section on the global positioning (GPS) system, a section on optical interferometry, and

an extensive introduction to spectrophotometry, sonoluminescence and surface plasmon resonance which are used for substance detection.

In Chapter 8, "Basic Electrical Measurements," the classic means of measuring electrical quantities are presented, as well as newer methods such as Faraday magneto-optic ammeters and Hall effect gaussmeters and wattmeters. Electronic means of measuring stored charge and static electric fields are described.

Digital interfaces on measurement systems are covered in Chapter 9. This chapter begins with a description of the sampling theorem, aliasing and quantization. The traditional topics of hold circuits, DACs and many types of ADC are covered. Also covered in Chapter 9 are data buses. New material includes a section on dithering as a means of reducing quantization noise, a section on delta-sigma ADCs and a section on the new USB. Virtual instruments and PXI systems are also introduced.

Since digitized, measured data is processed and stored on computers in modern instrumentation practice, Chapter 10, "Introduction to Digital Signal Conditioning," was written to acquaint the reader to this specialized field. The z-transform and its use in describing filtering operations on discrete, digitized data in the frequency domain is introduced. Examples of FIR and IIR digital filters are given, including numerical integration and differentiation routines, viewed both in the time and frequency domains. The discrete and fast Fourier transforms are covered and the effect of data windows on spectral resolution is discussed. Finally, the use of splines in interpolating discrete data sequences and estimating missing data points is described.

In Chapter 11, "Examples of the Design of Measurement Systems," four examples of complex measurement systems developed by the author and his students are given to illustrate design philosophy:

A self-nulling microdergree polarimeter to measure glucose concentration

A system to detect and locate partial discharges on underground, high-voltage power cables

Design of a laser velocity and distance measuring system

Design of capacitance sensors to detect hidden objects

Problems: Chapters 1 through 10 are followed by problems taken from the author's extensive classroom experience in teaching courses in instrumentation and measurement at the University of Connecticut. The problems are solvable; they are student-tested.

References and Bibliography: The references cited encompass a wide time span; from the 1950s to the present. There are many recent entries of review articles and specialized texts that should lead the reader interested in pursuing a specialized area of I&M further into that particular field.

Index: A complete index allows the reader to access topics, both featured and not featured in the Contents.

Features: Every chapter in the second edition of Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements has been revised to reflect modern technology. In addition, many chapters contain all-new material which expands the scope of the text to include geophysical, chemical and photonic instrumentation. Some of this unique new material includes:

The Anderson Current Loop technology for conditioning the outputs of remote resistive and capacitive sensors (Chapter 4)

The design of optical polarimeters and their application to polarization responding sensors (Chapter 6)

Photonic measurements with photomultipliers and channel plate photon sensors (Chapter 6)

Introduction of the sensing of gas phase analytes; the vertebrate olfactory system is described, as well as various chemical sensors, and feature extraction of complex odorants (Chapter 6)

The Sagnac effect as a means of measuring vehicle angular velocity (Chapter 6)

Micromachined, vibrating mass and vibrating disk rate gyros. The Humphrey air jet gyro is also analyzed. Traditional pendulum, as well as fluid-filled clinometers, is described. Micromachined, IC accelerometers are also covered (Chapter 7)

Global Positioning System (GPS) and its various modifications to improve its accuracy (Chapter 7)

Substance detection using photons (Chapter 7); dispersive, non-dispersive, and Fourier transform spectroscopy are described, as well as sonoluminescence and surface plasmon resonance

Dithering, delta-sigma ADCs, data acquisition cards, the USB, and virtual instruments and PXI systems (Chapter 9)
1 of 4 people found the following review helpful
Very Confusing Book 8 Mar 2001
By A Customer - Published on
Format: Hardcover
Very confusing and makes the reader struggle to understand what the writer wants to explain.
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