Since 1986 the Vatican Observatory has held every second year a Summer School in Astrophysics which brings together a group of 25 young scholars from around the world to study a special topic in modern astrophysics. In July 1998 a reunion of those who participated in the first five schools was held at the Observatory at Castel Gandolfo in Rome, Italy. This took the form of a scientific symposium which included discussions both of many of the most important topics in modern astrophysics and of the differences in science education in many different countries. There were also discussions of the education of women in science and of the relationship between science and religion. This collection of papers presented at the symposium provides a wide spectrum of interesting reading.