International experts from academia, industry and government discuss the cellular mechanisms that underlie rapid and delayed responses to oxygen deprivation, known as hypoxia. This volume brings together researchers and clinicians from developmental and cellular biology, drug development, oncology, neurobiology and medicine to discuss 1) How hypoxia–inducible factors regulate development and physiology, 2) How cells sense changes in oxygen availability, and 3) How oxygen availability affects several pathologies like pulmonary hypertension, sleep apnea, cancer and neurodegeneration. NOTE: Annals volumes are available for sale as individual books or as a journal. For information on institutional journal subscriptions, please visit www.blackwellpublishing.com/nyas . ACADEMY MEMBERS: Please contact the New York Academy of Sciences directly to place your order ( www.nyas.org ). Members of the New York Academy of Science receive full–text access to the Annals online and discounts on print volumes. Please visit http://www.nyas.org/MemberCenter/Join.aspx for more information about becoming a member.