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Human Memory [Paperback]

Gabriel A. Radvansky

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Table of Contents

1. Overview and History of Memory Research.

I. A Smattering of Definitions.

    A. Memory.

    B. Learning.

II. Metaphors for memory.

III. History of Memory Research.

    A. The Ancients.

    B. Important Modern Precursors.

        1. Darwin and Evolution.

        2. Philosophy of Mind.

    C. Early memory researchers in psychology.

        1. Ebbinghaus.

        2. Bartlett.

    D. Gestalt Psychology.

    E. Behaviorism.

    F. Verbal Learning.

    G. Early Efforts in Neuroscience.

    H. The cognitive revolution.

IV. The Modal Model of Memory.

V. Multiple memory systems.

VI. Recurring Issues.

    A. Neurological Bases.

    B. Memory and Emotion.

    C. Multiple Memory Sources.

    D. Embodied Cognition.

    E. Scientific rigor and converging evidence.

VII. Summary.

VIII. Key Terms.

2. Neuroscience of Memory.

I. Neurons.

    A. Neural structure.

    B. Neural communication.

        1. Action Potential.

        2. Neurotransmitters and the Synapse.

    C. Neural change in learning.

    D. A blind alley.

II. Larger Structures.

    A. Sub-cortical structures.

        1. Hippocampus.

        2. Other Structures.

    B. Cortical Lobes.

        1. Occipital Lobes.

        2. Parietal Lobes.

        3. Temporal Lobes.

        4. Frontal Lobes.

III. Neurological measures.

    A. Structural Measures.

        1. Computer-assisted tomography.

        2. Magnetic resonance Imaging.

    B. Electrical Measures.

        1. Electrical Stimulation.

        2. Single cell recordings.

        3. Event-related potentials.

    C. Blood Flow Measures.

        1. Positron Emission Tomography.

        2. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    D. Altered Brains.

        1. Case Studies and Lesions.

        2. Special populations.

IV. Summary.

V. Key terms.

3. Methods and Principles.

I. Components of Memory Research.

    A. What is an Experiment?

    B. Other Types of Studies.

II. Aspects of Learning.

    A. Intentional vs. Incidental Learning.

        1. Methods.

        2. Principles.

                        a. Levels of Processing.

            b. Imagery.

            c. Generation.

            d. Automaticity.

    B. Stimulus Characteristics.

        1. Methods.

        2. Principles.

                        a. Savings.

            b. Pictures and Concreteness.

            c. Emotion.

            d. Frequency.

III. Assessing the Contents of Memory.

    A. Recall.

        1. Methods.

                        a. Free Recall.

            b. Forced Recall.

            c. Cued Recall.

            d. Retrieval Plans.

        2. Principles.

            a. Forgetting Curve.

            b. Overlearning.

            c. Reminiscence and Hypermnesia.

    B. Recognition.

        1. Methods.

            a. Old-New Recognition.

            b. Correction for Guessing.

            c. Forced-Choice Recognition.

    C. Social Influences.

        1. Collaborative Inhibition.

        2. Collaborative Facilitation.

IV. Assessing Memory Structure and Process.

    A. Mental Chronometry.

        1. Methods.

        2. Principles.

    B. Cluster Analysis.

        1. Methods.

            a. Inter-Item Delays.

            b. ARC scores.

            c. Subjective Organization.

        2. Principles.

V. Conscious Experience of Memory.

    A. Metamemory Measures.

        1. Methods.

        2. Principles.

    B. Implicit Memory.

        1. Methods.

        2. Principles.

VI. Summary.

    A. Importance of Converging Evidence.

VII. Key terms.

4. Sensory and Short-Term Memory.

I. Sensory Memory.

II. Iconic Memory.

    A. Span and Duration of Iconic Memory.

    B. Anorthoscopic Perception.

    C. Trans-Saccadic Memory.

    D. Change Blindness.

III. Echoic Memory.

    A. Span and Duration of Echoic Memory.

IV. Haptic Sensory Memory.

    A. Span and Duration of Haptic Sensory Memory.

V. Short Term Memory.

    A. Short-Term Memory Capacity.

        1. Chunking.

        2. Very Large Capacity.

    B. Duration of Short-Term Memory.

        1. Decay.

        2. Interference.

    C. Retrieval in Short-Term Memory.

    D. Serial vs. Parallel Issues.

    E. Serial Position Curves.

        1. Primacy Effect.

        2. Recency Effect.

        3. Suffix Effect.

    F. Memory for Serial Order.

        1. Slot-Based Models.

        2. Chaining Models.

        3. Perturbation Model.

        4. Inhibition Models.

        5. Context-Based Models.

VI. Summary.

VII. Key terms.

5. Working Memory.

I. Baddeley and Hitch Model.

II. Phonological loop.

    A. Components.

    B. Phenomena of the Phonological Loop.

        1. Word Length Effect.

        2. Articulatory Suppression.

        3. Irrelevant Speech.

        4. Phonological Similarity.

        5. Lexicality.

III. Visuo-spatial sketchpad.

    A. Mental Images.

    B. Visual Scanning.

    C. Mental Rotation.

    D. Boundary Extension.

    E. Dynamic Memory.

        1. Representational Momentum.

        2. Representational Gravity.

        3. Representational Friction.


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