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Health Psychology: Biopsychosocial Interactions [Hardcover]

Edward P. Sarafino
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Table of Contents

PART I. An Introduction: Basic Issues and Processes.

Chapter 1. An Overview of Psychology and Health.

What Is Health?

An Illness/Wellness Continuum.

Illness Today and in the Past.

Viewpoints from History: Physiology, Disease Processes, and the Mind.

Early Cultures.

Ancient Greece and Rome.

The Middle Ages.

The Renaissance and After.

Seeing a Need: Psychology’s Role in Health.

Problems in the Health Care System.

“The Person” in Health and Illness.

Assess Yourself: What’s Your Lifestyle Like?

How the Role of Psychology Emerged.

Clinical Methods and Issues: Behaviorism’s Legacy:

Progress in Health Psychology’s Goals.

Health Psychology: The Profession.

Current Perspectives on Health and Illness.

The Biopsychosocial Perspective.

Life–Span and Gender Perspectives.

Relating Health Psychology to Other Science Fields.

Related Fields.

Health and Psychology across Cultures.

Highlight: Related Nonpsychology Careers.

Research Methods.

Experiments.

Correlational Studies.

Quasi–Experimental Studies.

Genetics Research.

Chapter 2. The Body’s Physical Systems.

Module 1: The Nervous System.

How the Nervous System Works.

The Central Nervous System.

The Peripheral Nervous System.

Clinical Methods and Issues: Biofeedback Treatment for Paralysis.

Module 2: The Endocrine System.

The Endocrine and Nervous Systems Working Together.

Adrenal Glands.

Other Glands.

Module 3: The Digestive System.

Food’s Journey Through Digestive Organs.

Highlight: Our Physiological Individuality.

Using Nutrients in Metabolism.

Assess Yourself: How Many Calories Do You BurnWhile Resting?

Module 4: The Respiratory System.

The Respiratory Tract.

Respiratory Function and Disorders.

Module 5: The Cardiovascular System.

The Heart and Blood Vessels.

Blood Pressure.

Blood Composition.

Cardiovascular Disorders.

Module 6: The Immune System.

Antigens.

The Organs of the Immune System.

Highlight: When Immune Functions Are Absent.

Soldiers of the Immune System.

Defending the Body with an Immune Response.

Less–Than–Optimal Defenses.

PART II. Stress, Illness, and Coping.

Chapter 3. Stress—Its Meaning, Impact, and Sources.

Experiencing Stress in Our Lives.

What Is Stress?

Appraising Events as Stressful.

Clinical Methods and Issues Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Dimensions of Stress.

Biopsychosocial Aspects of Stress.

Biological Aspects of Stress.

Psychosocial Aspects of Stress.

Sources of Stress Throughout Life.

Sources Within the Person.

Sources in the Family.

Highlight: Gender Differences in Caregiving?

Sources in the Community and Society.

Measuring Stress.

Physiological Arousal.

Life Events.

Daily Hassles.

Assess Yourself: Hassles in Your Life.

Can Stress Be Good for You?

Chapter 4. Stress, Biopsychosocial Factors, and Illness.

Psychosocial Modifiers of Stress.

Social Support.

Assess Yourself: How Much Emotional Support Do You Get?

A Sense of Personal Control.

Clinical Methods and Issues: Social Support, Therapy, and Cognitive Processes.

A Hardy Personality.

Type A and Type B Behavior Patterns.

How Stress Affects Health.

Stress, Behavior, and Illness.

Stress, Physiology, and Illness.

Highlight: Sudden “Voodoo” Death.

Psychoneuroimmunology.

Psychophysiological Disorders.

Digestive System Diseases.

Asthma.

Recurrent Headache.

Other Disorders.

Stress and Cardiovascular Disorders.

Hypertension.

Coronary Heart Disease.

Stress and Cancer.

Chapter 5. Coping with and Reducing Stress.

Coping with Stress.

What Is Coping?

Functions and Methods of Coping.

Assess Yourself: Your Focuses in Coping.

Reducing the Potential for Stress.

Enhancing Social Support.

Improving One’s Personal Control.

Organizing One’s World Better.

Highlight: The Amish Way of Social Support in Bereavement.

Exercising: Links to Stress and Health.

Preparing for Stressful Events.

Reducing Stress Reactions: Stress Management.

Medication.

Behavioral and Cognitive Methods.

Clinical Methods and Issues: The Case of “Bear”.

Massage, Meditation, and Hypnosis.

Using Stress Management to Reduce Coronary Risk.

Modifying Type A Behavior.

Treating Hypertension.

PART III. Lifestyles to Enhance Health and Prevent Illness.

Chapter 6. Health–Related Behavior and Health Promotion.

Health and Behavior.

Lifestyles, Risk Factors, and Health.

Highlight: Two Health Behaviors: Breast and Testicular Examinations.

Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Preventing Illness.

Problems in Promoting Wellness.

What Determines People’s Health–Related Behavior.

General Factors in Health–Related Behavior.

The Role of Beliefs and Intentions.

The Role of Less Rational Processes.

Developmental, Gender, and Sociocultural Factors in Health.

Development and Health.

Gender and Health.

Sociocultural Factors and Health.

Programs for Health Promotion.

Methods for Promoting Health.

Clinical Methods and Issues: Dialogues to Help People Stop Smoking.

Promoting Health in the Schools.

Worksite Wellness Programs.

Community–Based Wellness Programs.

Assess Yourself: Your Knowledge about AIDS.

Prevention with Specific Targets: Focusing on AIDS.

Chapter 7. Substance Use and Abuse.

Substance Abuse.

Addiction and Dependence.

Processes Leading to Dependence.

Smoking Tobacco.

Who Smokes, and How Much?

Why People Smoke.

Smoking and Health.

Highlight: Does Someone Else’s Smoking Affect Your Health?

Alcohol Use and Abuse.

Who Drinks, and How Much?

Assess Yourself: What’s True About Drinking?

Why People Use and Abuse Alcohol.

Assess Yourself: Do You Abuse Alcohol?

Drinking and Health.

Drug Use and Abuse.

Highlight: Types and Effects of Drugs.

Who Uses Drugs, and Why?

Drug Use and Health.

Reducing Substance Use and Abuse.

Preventing Substance Use.

Quitting a Substance without Therapy.

Treatment Methods to Stop Substance Use and Abuse.

Highlight: Where Should Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment Occur, and What Should Be the Goals and Criteria for Success?

Clinical Methods and Issues: Behavioral Methods for Treating Substance Abuse.

Dealing with the Relapse Problem.

Chapter 8. Nutrition, Weight Control and Diet, Exercise, and Safety.

Nutrition.

Components of Food.

What People Eat.

Nutrition and Health.

Weight Control and Diet.

Desirable and Undesirable Weights.

Becoming Overly Fat.

Dieting and Treatments to Lose Weight.

Highlight: Which “Carbs” to Avoid.

Clinical Methods and Issues: Problem–Solving Training to Control Weight.

Anorexia and Bulimia.

Assess Yourself: Your Weight Control Patterns.

Exercise.

Highlight: Types and Amounts of Healthful Exercise.

The Health Effects of Exercise.

Who Gets Enough Exercise, Who Does Not—and Why?

Promoting Exercise Behavior.

Safety.

Accidents.

Environmental Hazards.

PART IV. Becoming Ill and Getting Medical Treatment.

Chapter 9. Using Health Services.

Types of Health Services.

Specialized Functions of Practitioners.

Office–Based and Inpatient Treatment.

The American Health Care System.

Health Care Systems in Other Countries.

Perceiving and Interpreting Symptoms.

Perceiving Symptoms.

Interpreting and Responding to Symptoms.

Using and Misusing Health Services.

Who Uses Health Services?

Why People Use, Don’t Use, and Delay Using Health Services.

Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Misusing Health Services.

The Patient–Practitioner Relationship.

Patient Preferences for Participation in Medical Care.

Highlight: Fighting for Your Life.

The Practitioner’s Behavior and Style.

The Patient’s Behavior and Style.

Assess Yourself: Do You Know Medical Terms’ Meanings?

Compliance: Adhering to Medical Advice.

Extent of the Nonadherence Problem.

Why Patients Do and Do Not Adhere to Medical Advice.

Patient–Practitioner Interactions.

Increasing Patient Adherence.

Clinical Methods and Issues: How to Present Medical Information.

Focusing on Prevention.

Chapter 10. In the Hospital: The Setting, Procedures, and Effects on Patients.

The Hospital—Its History, Setting, and Procedures.

How the Hospital Evolved.

The Organization and Functioning of Hospitals.

Roles, Goals, and Communication.

Assess Yourself: Who’s Who in Physician Care.

The Impact of the “Bottom line”.

Being Hospitalized.

Relations with the Hospital Staff.

Sick–Role Behavior in the Hospital.

Emotional Adjustment in the Hospital.

Coping Processes in Hospital Patients.

Preparing Patients for Stressful Medical Procedures.

Highlight: Lamaze Training as a Method of Psychological Preparation for a Medical Procedure.

When the Hospitalized Patient Is a Child.

Clinical Methods and Issues: Preparing Children for Impending Hospitalization.

How Health Psychologists Assist Hospitalized Patients.

Initial Steps in Helping.

Tests for Psychological Assessment of Medical Patients.

Promoting Patients’ Health and Adjustment.

...

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